after, adv., prep., and conj.
α. eOE aæfter, eOE aeftaer, OE aefter (rare), OE æfterr (Northumbrian), OE æftor (rare), OE æftyr (rare), OE æter (transmission error), OE aftær (in a late copy), OE (rare)–eME æftær, OE (rare)–eME æfte, OE–eME æfter, OE–eME ęfter, OE (rare)– after, lOE æfer (perhaps transmission error), lOE–eME eafter, lOE–eME hæfter, eME ææfter, eME affterr ( Ormulum), eME aster (transmission error), ME affeter, ME afftere, ME afftir, ME afftr, ME afftre, ME afftter, ME affttyr, ME afftur, ME afftyr, ME afitir (transmission error), ME afteir, ME afþer, ME afthere, ME aftire, ME aftiree, ME aftour, ME aftr, ME aftter, ME afþur, ME afture, ME aftyre, ME aufter, ME auftir, ME haffter, ME hafter, ME haftyr, ME haufeter, ME ofter, ME (18– Irish English) afther, ME–15 aftere, ME–15 aftir, ME–15 aftre, ME–15 aftur, ME–15 aftyr, ME–16 affter, ME–16 aftar, 18– afthar (Irish English and Manx English), 19– af'er (U.S. regional (in African-American usage)); Scottish pre-17 afftir, pre-17 aftir, pre-17 aftyr, pre-17 17 affter, pre-17 17– after, 18– aifter.
β. Chiefly early and northern eOE ester (Northumbrian and Mercian, transmission error), eOE yftær (Kentish), eOE yfter (Kentish), OE–eME efer (perhaps transmission error), OE–ME efter, OE (rare)–ME hefter, lOE eftær, eME effer (transmission error), eME hester (transmission error), ME effter, ME efftere, ME efftir, ME efftyr, ME eftere, ME eftir, ME eftire, ME eftre, ME eftter, ME eftur, ME eftyr, ME eftyre, ME hefteir; English regional (northern and Lincolnshire) 18– efter, 18– efther, 18– eftther; Scottish pre-17 effter, pre-17 efftere, pre-17 efftir, pre-17 efftyr, pre-17 efftyre, pre-17 eftere, pre-17 eftire, pre-17 eftre, pre-17 eftyr, pre-17 eftyre, pre-17 17– efter, pre-17 17– eftir; also Irish English 19– efter, 19– efther.
See also (Show Less)
Frequency (in current use):
Origin: A word inherited from Germanic.
Cognate with (all as both adverb and preposition) Old Frisian efter
(adverb and preposition) after (in time), to, as a result of, through, in accordance with, behind (West Frisian efter
, ( < Dutch) achter
), Old Dutch after
(adverb and preposition) behind, according to (Middle Dutch after
, also in sense ‘after (in time)’; Dutch achter
), Old Saxon aftar
(adverb and preposition) after (in time), behind, through, as a result of (Middle Low German achter
( > Norwegian akter
, Swedish akter
, Danish agter
, all as adverb in specific sense ‘astern’), Old High German after
(adverb and preposition) after (in time), in accordance with, behind (Middle High German after
), also (with various variations in the suffix, although the precise nature of this is disputed) Old Icelandic aptr
), Old Swedish apter
), Old Danish atær
), all as adverb in sense ‘back, back again, backwards, again’, Early Runic after
(preposition) after, Gothic aftaro
(adverb) behind, from behind, aftra
(adverb) again, backwards, and also (apparently with different form of suffix causing i-mutation) Old Icelandic eptir
) (preposition) after (in time or place), Old Swedish æpti
), Old Danish æftir
), all as preposition, adverb, and (in Swedish and Danish) conjunction in sense ‘after (in time or place)’; ultimately showing a formation with an Indo-European comparative suffix also represented by Sanskrit -tara
, ancient Greek -τερος
, classical Latin -ter
(see discussion at ); the base is probably that of
(as shown likewise by the comparative formations ancient Greek ἀπωτέρω
, Sanskrit apataram
, both in sense ‘further off’; compare also Sanskrit aparam
afterwards), although it could alternatively be the same base as shown by ancient Greek ἐπί
(see ). Compare , , and also . Compare also
show the regular development of Old English æ
in Kentish and Mercian and their early Middle English reflexes. Northern Middle English
probably show influence from early Scandinavian (compare Old Icelandic eftir
). Influence from has also been suggested.
In Old English, the preposition is construed either with the dative or (rarely and chiefly in Northumbrian) with the accusative. The use as temporal conjunction (see sense ), which in Old English is found only in prose, is perhaps originally after classical Latin postquam
subsequent to the time when.
In Old English (and occasionally also later), the word can be used as preposition in postmodifying position; in Old English, this use is typically found after personal pronouns (compare also , ). In Old English and early Middle English, this use can be difficult to distinguish from use as a verbal prefix or separable verbal particle (see
and compare discussion at ; see further B. Mitchell Old Eng. Syntax
) §§ 1060–80). Compare the following:
eOE Anglo-Saxon Chron.
He..hiene gefliemde, & him æfter rad oþ þæt geweorc.
eOE tr. Orosius Hist.
i. x. 29
Hie..sona þone cyning gefliemdon mid his folce, & him æfterfolgiende wæron.
OE Wærferð tr. Gregory Dialogues
i. xii. 88
Gað ge beforon; ic eow cume æfter.
Þu leddest israeles folc þurh þe reade sea..ant hare fan senchtest þet ham efter sohten [c1225 Bodl. ferden ham efter].
A. adv. 1.
b. In a position of lower rank or importance; as a lower priority; secondarily.
B. x. l. 358 (MED)
Loue þi lorde god leuest aboue alle, And after, alle crystene creatures.
in D. M. Grisdale
Mannes resun..schuld evin be preferrid be-for sensualite & ner cum after.
1867 R. Edwards & J. R. Webb lxi. 187
Business first and pleasure after.
1916 E. A. Boyd iv. 80
The writers of The Nation were, as has been stated, patriots first and poets after.
2003 S. Tharoor iii. 47
With many close Muslim friends whom he saw as friends first and Muslims after (if at all), he could not..take religious divisions seriously.
b. With another temporal adverb or adverbial phrase, or with a specified period of time: later by the specified amount of time; (also) for the specified amount of time subsequent to an event. See also .
eOE tr. Orosius
ii. ii. 39
Raðe æfter [OE Tiber. æfter ðan] Romulus hiora anginn geunclænsade mid his broðor slege.
His wylla is þæt we aa æfter ure agenre þearfe geornlice winnan.
l. 1726 (MED)
Some lyuede after longe [v.r. longe þerafter].
l. 1408 (MED)
Confort..þei cauȝt sone after.
Gal. ii. 1
And sith fourtene ȝeer aftir, eftsones Y wente vp to Jerusalem.
Yf he be a frayd, he wyl not byt a good while aftur.
1513 G. Douglas tr. Virgil ix. v. 40
Brocht in schort quhile eftir syne.
1587 Sir P. Sidney & A. Golding tr. P. de Mornay xxxiv. 638
Immediatly after, all things should be set in their perfect state ageine.
1625 J. Hart ii. iv. 73
This flux continued..for some few dayes after.
1625 J. Hart ii. vi. 87
She died about two months after.
1684 J. Bunyan 219
It came to pass, a while after, that there was a Post in the Town that enquired for Mr. Honest.
1711 J. Swift 13 Aug.
I felt my last riding three days after.
1753 J. Hanway III. xxii. 149
Soon after, the artillery..proclaimed the news to the people.
1800 S. Turner 81
A few days after, I had an application for a fresh supply of the former [sc. raspberry jam and claret].
1854 Apr. 654/2
For a long time after, the stings of a wounded conscience reproached him.
1882 Oct. 352/2
For a moment there seemed no hope of her escape. ‘It was rub and go’, said the prize-master, as he told the story years after.
1914 J. B. Rathbun iii. 68
The camera man starts cranking the machine and the actors stand alert... An instant after follows the order, ‘Start your action’.
1957 M. Hadfield 396
The red horse-chestnut was first described in 1818 by the French botanist Loiscleur... It was apparently received and planted in Britain not long after.
2007 H. R. F. Keating
It was then I heard the bell. No. No, wait. It was a bit after.
c. Preceded by the and a unit of time (frequently with preceding ordinal number): on the (second, third, etc.) day, week, month, year, etc., that follows.
l. 2517 (MED)
Þei..rested..al þat longe day & al þe niȝt next after.
a1470 T. Malory
(Winch. Coll. 13)
All people sholde be at his castell the fifth day aftir.
1569 R. Grafton II. 61
Because it was Sunday, nothing was done. So the day after, which was the second fery, the Archebishop was cited to apere.
The morrowe after, being Satterdaie.
1611 John i. 35
The next day after John stood, and two of his disciples.
a1699 I. Abendana
The Day after is that of Purim, which is a Feast.
1727 E. Calamy II. 34
It fell the Week after to one thousand and fifty, and the Week after to six hundred fifty-two.
1758 E. Spelman tr. Dionysius of Halicarnassus II. v. 339
The day after, he appeared in a mourning habit.
1858 Aug. 406/1
The night after, the King's governor and the King's army found themselves closely beleagured [sic] in Boston.
1891 C. Creighton x. 507
In the last week of March they [sc. plague deaths] were 11, and in the week after, 10.
1908 Nov. 48/1
To-morrow we make an important revelation..and we want to follow it up the morning after by a cartoon that will be a stunner.
1949 19 Sept. 45/3
Next year it will be worse, still worse the year after.
8 Dec. 38
The day after I ached so much I felt like I'd been run over by a truck.
B. prep.In Old English with dative or (rarely) accusative. I.
Senses relating to place or position.
b. Of the position of something at rest (chiefly in relation to a person or thing in motion): behind, to the rear of; following. Now frequently Irish English.
OE tr. Felix
He þa se eadiga wer Guthlac acsode hi, hwæðer hi ænig þinc æfter heom on þam scipe forleton.
lOE Homily: Evangelium de Virginibus
(Corpus Cambr. 303)
in H. L. C. Tristram
(Ph.D. diss., Freiburg)
Se brydgume..genam þa fif snotere mædena mid him in to his brydbure and beleac þa duru æfter heom.
c1300 St. Edmund Rich
l. 428 in C. Horstmann
Make faste þe dore aftur þe and ne lat þou no man in gon.
Spedilich in þey wente & After hymen made þe gate faste.
Leffe noght my saule, lorde, aftir þe, In depe helle.
Go o bak after me, Sathanas.
1484 W. Caxton tr. G. de la Tour-Landry
Suche ther be that lawgheth to fore yow, whiche after youre back goo mockyng.
1535 Judges iii. 23
Ehud..put to ye dore after him, and lockte it.
1570 J. Foxe
I was the page to a footeman, carying after him his pyke and burganet.
a1727 I. Newton
i. i. 31
Sometimes I placed a third Prism after the second, and sometimes also a fourth after the third.
1764 H. Walpole i. 29
Shut the trap-door after you.
1849 4 Aug. 178/3
Be particular to hasp the gate after you when you go out.
1885 July 373/1
Lapham followed him to close the street-door after him.
1938 6 Jan. 9/4
She went out and closed the door after her, and called the police.
2001 J. McGowan
He was taking the horse out of the cart..when he realised that he left the cart-cover after him.
c. colloquial. With verbs of cleaning or making orderly: consequent upon the actions of (a person or animal).Now chiefly following phrasal verbs with up, as to clean up, to tidy up, etc.See also .
1741 H. Fielding in 30 Mar. 1/1
Both of us had need of a hundred Hands, and nothing else to do but to..run and go, and tend and clean after him.
1782 F. Burney V. ix. vi. 125
One's dirt enough of one's own, without taking people out of the streets to help one. Who do you think's to clean after you?
1852 19 Jan. 6/3
She refused to clean up after the cats.
1863 Mrs. H. Wood III. xxxvii. 252
Messing the floor and places with your powder and stuff! It would take two servants to clear up after you.
1895 7 Dec. 299/1
The mother who instils this in her little ones certainly spares herself the constant fatigue..of perpetually tidying after her nearly grown-up daughters.
1953 A. Baron xxiv. 178
This battalion came all the way from Africa, two thousand miles of bloody misery.., and what for? To clean their crap up after them!
1990 P. Cornwell i. 8
Maybe he wiped up after himself to make sure he didn't leave footprints on the john or floor.
Free pooper scoopers have been provided..but many dog owners continue to ignore pleas to tidy up after their pet.
†b. Along the surface of, close to. Obsolete. rare.
22 Sept. 215
Ða het [se casere] hy gemartyrian þæt heora þæt halige blod orn æfter eorðan swa swa flod.
?1523 J. Fitzherbert sig. C.iiii
Hey cometh of a grasse called crofote and groweth flat after the erth.
b. In search of, in order to find or get (a person or thing at rest). Frequently with come, go, and send.
Ne far ðu æfter fremdum godum [L. non ibitis post deos alienos].
Her for Ealdred biscop to Rome æfter his pallium.
He com æfter þe Romescot.
Þe king sende efter him.
MS Lamb. in R. Morris
1st Ser. 7 (MED)
God almihti sende his apostles..efter þe assa fole.
He sende writes..After his erles euere-ich on.
l. 1892 (MED)
He send his sond After alle þe wise men of his lond, And tolde hem alle his greuaunce.
Ful semely after hir mete she raghte.
The scherreue..sent after a leche.
l. 499 (MED)
Hys squyeres bode he there, Aftyr hys armor for to far.
Huffe huffe huffe who sent after me I am Imagynacyon full of Iolyte.
1611 Deut. vi. 14
Yee shall not goe after other gods.
1698 W. Bates x. 227
Rejoycing in hope of the Glory of God, which we are reaching after, and pressing towards.
1741 S. Richardson III. xxx. 201
There is nobody comes after her: She receives no Letters.
1755 T. Smollett tr. M. de Cervantes II. ii. ii. 115
The company not being willing to wait for the scrivener, who was gone after the foil.
1803 in D. Knox
The cutter was sent after sand and holy stones.
1876 E. A. Freeman II. x. 462
The new Metropolitan went to Rome after his pallium.
1909 M. J. Cawein 86
Old Sis Snow..Sticks her long white fingers through Every crack and cranny too, Reaching after me and you.
1978 Jan. 62/2
The officer contends that Mendoza came after him with a knife.
2000 A. Huebner 84
I hear they went and stuck his head in the latrine, sent him after a flask someone'd dropped.
Indicating the aim or object of many verbs, adjectives, and nouns of action. Cf. .
b. With verbs, adjectives, and nouns of seeking or desiring information, as ask, enquire, etc.: for information about; for news of.
Wlonc hæleð oretmecgas æfter hæleþum [read æþelum] frægn.
Se iunga man þe þu æfter axsodest is forliden man.
Cuð me & ken þet ich easki efter.
Þe king..bad æuerælcne mon axien after Mærlin.
After his douhter he asked swiþe.
B. v. l. 543
I seygh neuere palmere..Axen after hym.
i. 96 (MED)
Þer was comyn a preste..speryng & inqwyryng diligently aftyr þe seyd creatur.
ii. l. 55
His men eftir him askit thai.
l. 608 (MED)
A-none hym axed thys worthy kynge After hys Neuowe, Partonope.
1589 W. Warner xxvii. sig. M
Not omitting to enquire after those in Quest of whome they thus sailed.
1611 Deut. xii. 30
That thou enquire not after their gods.
1670 F. Vernon Let. 14 Dec. in H. Oldenburg
The Italians are not very Curious after Sciences.
1675 I. Newton 30 Nov.
An ancient Gentleman I met..being thick of hearing desired me to inquire after ye form of Mr Mace's Otocousticon.
1745 E. Haywood I. vi. 370
She assured her that the Child she enquired after was alive, and a fine Boy.
1751 S. Johnson No. 146. 193
He..is sometimes provoked by importunate inquiries after the white bear.
1775 R. B. Sheridan ii. i
I told him you had sent me to inquire after his health.
1822 Ld. Byron iii. i
Asking after you With nobly-born impatience.
1869 Jan. 87/2
England was satisfied with iron from Sweden without being impertinently inquisitive after her painters and statuaries.
1888 J. W. Burgon I. i. 69
He inquired after my standing in the University.
1915 C. S. Churchill Let. 15 Dec. in W. S. Churchill & C. S. Churchill
The P.M. snuffled & asked after you & asked if you were happy.
1951 Sept. 240/2
You omit to ask after the health of his aged mother.
29 Dec. 20
I got on the phone and rang three other couples who have seven or eight kids and inquired after their health.
With verbs of hailing or calling, as call
(a) So as to attract the attention of (a person moving away from the subject); in the direction of (a departing person).
OE Ælfric Old Test. Summary: Kings
in W. W. Skeat
Þa geseah Heliseus hu he siðode up, and clypode hlude æfter his lareowe þus: ‘Pater mi.’
As he loked along þere as oure Lorde passed, ȝet he cryed hym after.
1600 R. Surflet tr. C. Estienne & J. Liébault i. xxv. 158
He must whoop and whistle after them, threatning them with his sheepe-crooke.
1684 J. Bunyan 205
Mr. Great-heart called after him, saying, so-ho, Friend, let us have your Company.
1709 R. Steele No. 59
They never call after those who run away from them.
1766 O. Goldsmith I. iv. 39
The very children..will hoot after us.
1841 C. Dickens xxxv. 140
A set of ragamuffins comes a shouting after us ‘Gordon for ever!’
1891 F. T. Elworthy 132
These lines used to be shouted after the children who did not come to school in time.
1936 C. Woolrich in 4 July 13/1
‘Bon voyage!’ the concierge yelled after him.
2004 L. Desoto lvi. 383
‘Watch out for snakes,’ he calls after her as she moves out of sight.
(b) In order to get; with the hope or intention of acquiring or obtaining. Now rare.With quot. cf. the note at .
l. 419 (MED)
Ha..ȝeornliche ȝeiȝeð efter godes grace to help & to heale.
4 193 (MED)
After help longe he may calle.
c1330 Sir Degare
238 in W. H. French & C. B. Hale
Þe litel child þai herde crie, And clepede after help on hie.
l. 17842 (MED)
Anoon þei calde aftir parchemyne [Vesp. badd..giue þaim parchemin].
c1425 J. Lydgate
iv. l. 6832 (MED)
Goddes..After whos helpe now I clepe & calle.
?1518 sig. C.jv
Some stered at the helme behynde Some whysteled after the wynde.
1578 J. Rolland 7
Sa on the morne he cryit efter his clais.
1603 H. Clapham iii. iii. 149
How well may the Gentiles seede..cry after a freedome..from the rudiments of the world.
1959 10 Dec. 1034/1
For a long time now it has been fashionable to cry after new ‘textures’ in sound.
†d. With verbs of seeing or observing, as behold, aspy, etc.: in the direction of; in order to see. Obsolete.Recorded earliest (and in later use only) in .
Þa hie þa in þone heofon locodan æfter him, & hie Drihten gesawon upastigendne.
l. 1093 (MED)
Aþulf was in þe ture Abute, for to pure After his comynge.
(Huntington HM 137)
C. i. l. 14 (MED)
Esteward ich byhulde after þe sonne [c1390 A text an-heiȝ to þe sonne].
Fly fforth, þou fayr dove, ovyr þese waterys wete and aspye afftere sum drye lond.
†e. With verbs of waiting or remaining, as abide, stand, wait, etc.: in expectation of; in wait for. Obsolete.
All þatt ȝer herode king Bad affterr þeȝȝre come. To witenn ȝiff þeȝȝ haffdenn crist.
After betere wind hii moste þere at stonde.
(Huntington HM 137)
C. ii. l. 124 (MED)
He was [read Hewes] in þe halyday after heten wayten.
c1425 J. Lydgate
i. l. 2739 (MED)
Sche so longe abood after hir knyȝt.
a1500 Craft of Dying
in C. Horstmann
II. 408 (MED)
His welbelouyd & trusti frende..þat he had lon[g] abyd and lokid after [v.r. fore].
(W. de Worde)
The abbot..stode under a pyler and abode after Thomas.
f. With verbs, adjectives, and nouns of searching, as search, hunt, etc.: in order to find (something lost, hidden, or not in one's possession).Recorded earliest in .
& all forrwerrp þu towarrd himm. To sekenn affterr wræche.
B. xii. l. 217 (MED)
And so I sey by þe þat sekest after þe whyes.
1566 J. Martiall ii. 6
Ægernesse in searching after bokes, and trouble in seeking after non communicants.
1600 W. Shakespeare i. i. 29
My seruant Trauers who I sent..to listen after newes.
a1616 W. Shakespeare
i. i. 63
He after Honour hunts, I after Loue.
1670 E. Browne Let. 30 May in H. Oldenburg
They still report of searching after silver in these partes.
1707 J. Dunton p. xiii
She is Courteous and Sociable to her Neighbours, but scorns to go a hunting after Gossipings.
1751 S. Johnson No. 144. ⁋11
This impartial and zealous enquirer after truth.
1838 T. F. Dibdin I. 128
I did not leave Doncaster..without a rummage after a Polyglot Bible in the Parochial Library.
1892 E. S. Brookes xiv. 130
At one time Von Rotter..became smitten with the gold fever, spending his holidays in fossicking after the precious metal.
1937 Mar. 94/1
The genuine alchemist was an earnest searcher after truth.
2007 E. J. Wood et al. vii. 143
Following up one good source may lead the user..back to the library catalog to forage after additional call numbers.
Senses relating to time.
b. In phrases indicating something happening continuously or repeatedly, as hour after hour, man after man, night after night, etc.See also , , , .
O þatt illke wise comm. Aȝȝ dækenn affterr dækenn.
a1225 MS Lamb. in R. Morris
1st Ser. 75 (MED)
Ic ou wile seggen word efter word.
1674 R. Strange xxiii. 293
And soe strophe after strophe till the hymne was ended.
1798 S. T. Coleridge Anc. Marinere ii, in W. Wordsworth & S. T. Coleridge 13
Day after day, day after day, We stuck, ne breath ne motion.
1816 May 367/2
Man after man is ruined, family after family is swallowed up.
1866 G. A. Sala 93
In front of the Grand Hotel gather group after group.
1893 B. Harraden i. vii
‘It seems so little to ask,’ she cried to herself time after time.
1943 W. Stegner i. 23
Mile after mile, hour after hour..past windmills and discouraged plantings of saplings.
b. Subsequent to or later than (an event or point in time).
Her oþiewde read Cristesmęl on hefenum æfter sunnan setlgonge.
Ðes ilces geares com se abbot Heanri of Angeli æfter Æsterne to Burch.
a1200 MS Trin. Cambr. in R. Morris
2nd Ser. 47
On þe ehteðe dai efter his burþe.
After Noes flode ymba wintra a þusund and fif hund wintra.
Anon after midsomer þis bataile ido was.
l. 77 (MED)
Þe child schuld weld al here godis..after here lif dawes.
Soone after the mydnyght.
in G. G. Perry
Eftire þis sall þou wiete, whilke ere þe ten comandementis.
i. viii. sig. avi
After the deth of the duke more than thre houres was Arthur begoten.
They schette hem in a cenakle or a sowpynge place vnto þe xi day after þe ascension in fastyngis and prayingis.
1577 R. Holinshed Hist. Scotl. 407/2 in I
Adrian ye Bishop of Romes Legate came too late, as who shuld say, a day after ye fayre.
1588 A. King tr. P. Canisius 14
Æternal lyffe..for ye chosin eftir deathe.
1605 F. Bacon ii. sig. Bb3
The Narration may bee before the fact, aswell as after .
1640 in J. Nicholson 24 Nov.
Four dayes efter your receipt heirof.
1728 in G. Lamoine
Others, whose Attainders, soon after the Revolution, were reversed by Parliament.
1769 R. Wood 60
It is allowed on all hands, that Prose writing was unknown in Greece, till long after the Poet's time.
1832 H. Martineau viii. 124
It was long after dark.
1870 Ld. Tennyson Golden Supper in 171
The eleventh moon After their marriage.
1915 c.89 §38
In any accounting period which ended after the fourth day of August nineteen hundred and fourteen.
1977 O. Schell
After the robbery, I get decked by an incensed worker.
2008 D. Lodge
After my test I saw the ENT consultant.
c. In stating the time of day: so many minutes, or a quarter or half of an hour, past a particular hour. In later use also with elision of the hour. Cf. . Now chiefly North American.
a1500 in T. Wright & J. O. Halliwell
I. 319 (MED)
The xix day of April, the sonne aryseth iij quarteres after iiij, and gooth downe a quartere after vij.
1519 in J. Raine
Prime bell to seice a quarter after ix.
?1597 J. Blagrave sig. B
There shal the nooneline shew you in the hower circle almost a quarter after 6 of the clock, the time of son rising that day.
1699 G. Garden iv. xxxvi. 284
They learn'd to read and write till half after Six.
1732 B. Lynde Diary 31 Mar. in B. Lynde & B. Lynde
a.m. ½ after 5 I went with son's horse.
1774 P. V. Fithian
I..rode thence to Westmoreland Court House ten Miles by half after six.
We was preaded [i.e. paraded] about half after two in the morning.
1809 M. Edgeworth Madame de Fleury i, in II. 167
It was now half after four.
1853 C. Dickens xlix. 472
‘At half-after one.’ Says Mr. Bagnet. ‘To the minute. They'll be done.’
1905 27 Jan. 3
About half after twelve the roof of the building fell in with a crash.
1961 A. Miller i. 13
‘It's twenty after nine.’ ‘After!’ Isabelle comes farther out on the porch and calls up to a second-floor window: ‘Dear girl? It's twenty after!’
2008 L. Barclay xxxvii. 344
I went to Kelly's at nine, not knowing whether he'd show up... But about five after, he came in.
b. In spite of, notwithstanding (a preceding action or event).
J. Yonge tr.
Aftyr all this glorie, hym befell the fowle dethe.
After all this þe seynt was hole and semyd as a man vnhurtyd.
1578 J. Lyly f. 30v
After all his strife he [sc. Menelaus] wan but a Strumpet.
a1616 W. Shakespeare
v. i. 339
Harke how the villaine would close now, after his treasonable abuses.
1674 N. Fairfax 24
After all this wheeling about, we are not a step further than we were.
1710 S. Palmer 69
After all our complaints of the lawyers and the law, there is no man in this kingdom too big for either.
If justice be denied after such request, it is reasonable to arm him with power, to take satisfaction by reprize.
1809 B. H. Malkin tr. A. R. Le Sage III. vii. ii. 35
After this, if you do not play your cards, it is your own fault.
1877 3 176
Such a rebuke to negotiation after a civil war of half this magnitude in any European nation, probably would have called down the intervention of its neighbors.
1915 J. Hay viii. 83
He was wondering that she should be so friendly..toward him after his behaviour two days before.
1964 10 Apr. 72/2
It was funny because, after all that, he had spelled the name wrong.
1996 H. Fielding
I can't believe you're being so mean, darling. After all I've done for you.
c. after all (also U.S. afterall): in spite of any indications or expectations to the contrary; when all is said and done, nevertheless.
1590 E. Spenser ix. 539
Yet after all, he victour did suruiue.
1690 J. Locke i. iv. 35
Not that I want a due respect to other Mens Opinions; but after all, the greatest reverence is due to Truth.
1712 R. Steele No. 462. ⁋1
But after all he is very pleasant Company.
a1774 A. Tucker
III. iv. xxix. 154
And after all perhaps we have no greater enjoyments among us than those of eating when we are hungry.
1809 W. Irving II. vii. viii. 239
Yet after all he was a mere mortal.
1846 Ld. Tennyson in 10 106/1
Surely, after all, The noblest answer unto such Is kindly silence when they brawl.
1876 E. A. Freeman I. ii. 20
The Roman occupation was, after all, very superficial.
1906 10 Sept. 6/3
Fifty-three job holders were assassinated in Russia last month. After all, that is cheaper than muck-raking them out of their jobs.
1932 L. Golding ii. ii. 295
Perhaps, after all, it'll be a good match. There will be a simchah.
1976 1 July (Advt. Suppl.)
Afterall, the movement of people, not vehicles, is what counts.
2008 J. Armstrong & S. Bain 5th Ser. Episode 5. 312/1
It's not such a drag the fest being strictly drink- and drugs-free after all, is it?
Senses relating to order.
Senses relating to manner or style.
Frequently in to do after
in senses , .
b. In obedience to, in compliance or harmony with, according to (a law, will, order, advice, etc.). Now archaic and rare.
OE (Northumbrian) ii. 22
Impleti sunt dies purgationis eius secundum legem Mosi : gefylled wer dagas clænsunges his æfter ae [OE Rushw. æfter æ Moyses].
Soþlice þæne þeow þe his hlafordes willan wiste & ne dyde æfter his hlafordes willan [L. non fecit secundum voluntatem eius], he biþ witnad manegum witum.
Gehyr mine stefne, halig drihten, æfter ðinre þære myclan mildheortnesse [L. secundum misericordiam tuam], and æfter þinum domum [L. secundum iudicium tuum] do me halne.
Æfter þes cynges willan hi wið hine acordedan.
lOE tr. Trinubium Sanctae Annae in W. Keller
Æfter Cleophas deaðe, Anna æfter þære lage genam þone þridde were.
Eȝȝþerr here ȝede swa. Rihht affterr godess lare.
MS Lamb. in R. Morris
1st Ser. 9 (MED)
Alswa hefden þe giwis heore sinagoge efter moises laȝe alswa we habbet nu chirche efter drihtenes laȝe.
l. 462 (MED)
Hy schal wite more And don after þi lore.
l. 2891 (MED)
Wel sone dude þe Amyrel after ys counseil riȝt.
(Galba & Harl.)
l. 47 (MED)
Alle thing he ordaynd aftir is wille.
1477 Earl Rivers tr.
Whether they haue obserued it [sc. a command] after theyr charge or nat.
1535 1 Chron. xxix. B
Yf he be constant to do after my commaundementes.
1535 John xix. 7
After our lawe he ought to dye.
1628 R. Burton
iii. ii. iii. 492
To make good Musicke of their owne voices, and dance after it.
1672 F. B. 9
Let him not spare somtimes to seem to do after their advice..; For they will work with more cheerfulness, when they think that the matter is carryed according to their invention.
1698 J. Fryer 94
At the end of their Quarentine, which is Forty days, after the Old Law, they enter the Hummums to purify.
1899 J. L. Weston tr. G. von Strassburg
Ask them what they deem good for the present need and do after their advice.
†c. In compliance with the wishes of, at the request or command of (a person). Obsolete.
I þis hus is þe huse lauerd, ant te fulitohe wif mei beon wil ihaten þet ga þe hus efter hire; ha diht hit al to wundre.
a1275 St. Margaret
l. 224 in A. S. M. Clark
(Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Michigan)
Do after me ant be my wif, ne be þe þi lif so loet.
l. 150 (MED)
And þou wolle do after me, To mi court ȝeo schal beo ibrouȝt.
Þou art rewlyd aftyr þe fende..And noþynge certys aftyr me.
Madame..woll ye do After me?
I. xxii. 278
Pylate, do after vs, And dam to deth Iesus.
I. 31 (MED)
Thou haste not donne after me..But donne to her byddinge.
b. In the manner of, in the same way as; in emulation of; like. Also with verbs of naming or designating: in imitation or memory of (see also ).Cf. .
An Antiochia þare ceastre wæs sum cyningc Antiochus gehaten: æfter þæs cyninges naman wæs seo ceastre [perh. read ceaster] Antiochia geciged.
Swa þatt te faderr wurrþe firrst. Iechonyas ȝehatenn. & allse hiss sune efft affterr himm. Beo iechoniass nemmnedd.
Ofte mused þe catt after þe moder.
Þe nexte monþe..He let after him clupie august.
a1398 J. Trevisa tr. Bartholomaeus Anglicus
(BL Add. 27944)
II. xv. v. 728
He gadred moche folke..and toke Armenia and clepid it aftir his owne name.
l. 5409 (MED)
More hij ben þan olyfaunz, Blake-heueded after a palfray.
Frenssh she spak..After the scole of Stratford at the Bowe.
Eneas..Aftyr Venus hadde he swich fayrnesse That no man myghte be half so fayr.
1484 W. Caxton tr. G. de la Tour-Landry
That she be arayed after the good ladyes of the Countre.
Rome..was set..Tild vpon Tiber after Troy like.
This kyng Brutus..when he had the Isle all tripertyed, He called the chyefe Logres after Locryne.
?1577 F. T. sig. Ciiiv
And [they] were clothed after citiȝen.
1601 A. Munday tr. J. Teixeira 83
Some were attired after the French, others like Hollanders.
1630 tr. G. Botero
The Asians they terme after their owne name, Turks; but the Europians, Rumi, that is, Romans.
1691 T. Downes 22
His Arguments against the Bishop's do equally conclude against his own Directions; and thus I argue after him.
1710 R. Steele No. 228. ⁋4
I must..copy after an old Almanack which I have by me.
1711 R. Steele No. 2. ⁋1
Sir Roger de Coverley. His Great Grand-father was Inventor of that famous Country-Dance which is called after him.
1795 E. Gibbon 74
After his oracle Dr. Johnson, my friend..denies all original genius.
1839 H. Hallam III. v. 470
Some are said to dress after a lady for whom nature has done more than for themselves.
1849 T. B. Macaulay II. 491
A succession of bands designated, as was the fashion of that age, after their leaders.
1865 Dec. 751/2
Arguing (after De Quincey) that a succession of passiuncles exhausts the soil of the heart.
1908 U. Sinclair xvi. 279
Here was a woman who costumed herself after figures in famous paintings.
1924 A. F. Major tr. J. Brøndsted iii. 293
He christens them [sc. rune-stones] after the reddish sandstone,..the ‘Ringerike Group’.
1995 C. Hamnett in T. Butler & M. Savage xv. 262
Jager argues, after Baudrillard, that socially produced objects can express the same logic as conspicuous leisure.
c. In imitation of, in the style of (an artist or work). Also: in resemblance of, representing (a person or thing).
He hæfð mon geworhtne æfter his onlicnesse.
(St. John's Oxf.)
Sume syndon facticia, þa synd geworhte æfter gelicnysse agenes sweges: tintinnabolum belle, turtur turtle.
Þatt arrke..iss wrohht off tre. Affterr þin herrtess arrke.
l. 335 (MED)
He took virgyne waxe And made a popet after þe quene.
Symulacres ben ymages made after lykness of men..or of the mone or of ony best.
i. 77 (MED)
An ymage..mad aftyr our Lord.
A meruelous ymage, All grauen of gold..Amyt after Ector.
i. 290 (MED)
Se this glorious fygure, Whiche Sent Luke of our lady lyvynge After her lyknes made in picture.
1634 W. Tirwhyt tr. J. L. G. de Balzac 120
Nor will I believe he was made after the image of God, lest therein I should wrong so excellent a nature.
1667 E. Waterhouse 90
She seems to be framed after the Protoplast of the Nation, that she answers every feature and digestion of parts in the Greater Body.
1762 H. Walpole II. i. 31
Nicholas, the second son..while abroad modelled after the antiques.
1845 A. Jameson 313
Venus and Cupid..a copy after Titian.
1850 A. Jameson 1
A portfolio of prints after the old masters.
1912 3 June 6/1
The velvet brocade material..was woven after an English design.
1990 Oct. 64
A painted enamel plaque after Philippe Mercier.
2002 J. Grieve tr. M. Proust ii. 386
At the very bottom of this Harmony in Grey and Pink after Whistler, a tiny moth [etc.].
C. conj. 1.
Subsequent to the time when. Cf. branch
Forming a compound conjunction.
(b) With relative word only (chiefly that). Now Caribbean.
eOE tr. Bede
iv. xxiii. 326
Æfter þon [OE Corpus Cambr. æfter ðon þe] he hine gereste medmicel fæc, ða ahof hine up.
OE (Northumbrian) ii. 22
Postquam impleti sunt dies purgationis eius..tulerunt illum in Hierusalem : æfter ðon gefylled wer dagas clænsunges his..lædon hine in Hierusalem.
Æfter þæt seo blodlæse si ȝefylled, þu hine scealt scearpiȝean.
MS Lamb. in R. Morris
1st Ser. 139 (MED)
Sunnendei fond noe lond efter þet ure drihten hefde þet folc adreint.
l. 2928 (MED)
After þat he spused wore, Wolde þe erl nouth dwelle þore, But sone nam until his lond.
Jer. xxxvi. 27
And don is the wrd of the Lord to Jeremye, the profete, after that the king hadde brent the volum.
After þat Saxons & Englysse verst come þys lond to.
Bot after that we haue for-sake oure-selfe, we be mych more fre fro besynes of hem.
1535 M. Coverdale xxxvi. 27
After now that the kynge had brente the boke.
1611 Jer. xxxvi. 27
After that the king had burnt the roule.
1658 E. Ashmole iii. ii. 183
Agricola saith..that Salt-Peter, after that by draining it hath lost its taste and virtue, if it be laid open in the Weather, will within five or six years space, grow and ripen.
1981 14 Feb. 1
It is only after that this is done, that the Government will appoint someone to talk to them.
1996 R. Allsopp 14/2
After when she came back, dey went to de beach.
b. As a simple conjunction.
l. 679 (MED)
After he was a-waked a ful long þrowe, he wende ful witerly [etc.].
a1387 J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden
(St. John's Cambr.)
V. 357 (MED)
He..deide þe ȝere after he hadde ifonge þe fey of holy chirche.
After þei han slayn hem, þei spryngen the blood vpon the ydole.
a1464 J. Capgrave
This empoure Claudius was so oblivious that, sone aftir he had killid his wyf, he asked why sche came not to soper.
1526 Matt. xxvi. 32
After I am rysen ageyne. [ Wyclif After that I schal rise aȝen.]
1588 A. King tr. P. Canisius 31
Efter we knaw the law maker, we may rewerence him ye mair.
1623 N. Ferrar Diary 4 Mar. in D. R. Ransome
After the Match was interteyned itt was never mentioned.
c1680 A. Wood
After he had feasted the Scholars at his Inception, they like clownes left him.
1753 J. Hanway II. vi. 29
After the Portuguese had settled themselves in East India.
1772 L. Carter 9 Oct.
Lead water is good to dry up a wound after it has well digested its matter.
1855 T. B. Macaulay III. 10
A few days after the Revolution had been accomplished.
1896 Mar. 595/1
After they had refreshed themselves, they were assigned to their rooms.
1928 R. Jeffers 17
Months later, after the rains began and cramped His migrant hunting, he thought [etc.].
2005 M. M. Frisby xxxiii. 235
After she got dressed she came strutting back into the living room.
In the manner in which; according to what or how. Cf. branch
Forming a compound conjunction.
(b) With relative only (that or as). Obsolete.
Ded. l. 99
Himm bidde icc þatt het write rihht..All þwerrt ut affterr þatt itt iss. Vpp o þiss firrste bisne.
Godes temple is ȝerard uppe..after ðat ðe apostel seið: Tempilum dei, quod estis uos.
l. 264 (MED)
Riht after þat man haþ don, He shal fonge his iugement.
c1426 J. Audelay
Vche person schuld haue his part after þat he had ned.
If a Ml clerkes did noght els, After þat þe boke tels..Ȝitte soulde thay neuere fifte parte.
1460 M. Paston in
It is solde ryth well aftyr þat the wole was, for the moste part was ryte febyll.
1587 Sir P. Sidney & A. Golding tr. P. de Mornay xiv. 230
After as any of these three powers doe reigne and beare sway.
(Trin. Cambr. R.3.15)
But after þat his wynnynge is, is his well-fare.
b. As a simple conjunction. Obsolete.
l. 2810 (MED)
After godrich haues wrouht..Lokes þat ye demen him rith.
l. 8888 (MED)
O quens had he hundrets seuen..Efter þe laghes war in þaa dais.
J. Gaytryge Lay Folks' Catech.
in G. G. Perry
Ilke cristene mane awe..to take efter his elde es.
1484 W. Caxton tr. G. de la Tour-Landry
Bere honoure to euery one after he is worthy.
1634 ii. cviii. sig. Aa3v
Euery knight after hee was of prowesse.
P1. after one's own heart: see .
P2. after the flesh: see .
†P3. after the hand: after the event; afterwards. Cf. Obsolete.
a1393 J. Gower
iv. l. 893 (MED)
Bot whanne he hath his cause lore, Thanne is he wys after the hond.
1616 G. Markham tr. C. Estienne et al.
v. xxii. 586
This part must be made reasonable stiffe, because the weake paste euer falleth after the hand.
a. after you is manners and variants: a polite formula used (frequently humorously or self-consciously) in yielding precedence. Cf. . Now rare.
1580 A. Saker 90
The common saying is: after you is maners.
1650 R. Heath Epigrams 33, in
Oh! after him is manners.
a1652 R. Brome Queen & Concubine iii. vii. 61 in
Cur. Wilt thou be a Scholar? Andr. After you is manners. Cur. Now by mine intellect, discreetly spoken.
1721 J. Kelly 42
After you is good Manners. Spoken when our Betters offer to serve us first.
1798 J. O'Keeffe Czar Peter iii. ii, in III. 192
Stop, friend! after me is manners.
1849 16 Oct.
‘Come, then, you begin.’ ‘No, you.’ ‘After you is manners.’
1899 R. Whiteing xiv. 139
I remember the fine-company style of Tildor's tea-party, ‘After you's manners’, whenever we passed the plate.
1922 J. Joyce 472
(He stands aside at the threshold.) After you is good manners.
b. after you: a polite formula used in yielding precedence; ‘you go first’. Also with with: used to request the next turn with (something).
1734 H. Fielding ii. xi. 36
After you, Sir; I am not quite unbred.
1768 O. Goldsmith iii. 37
After you, Sir.
1851 Oct. 590/1
After you with the paper, if you please, sir.
1898 B. M. Croker xvii. 172
No, no; after you, please—ladies first.
1917 Mar. 408/2
After you with the fire, mate.
1955 E. Pound iii. 152
Taught 'em to bow and stand aside, Say: after you, and: if you please.
2005 H. Mantel
They arrived in the utility room at the same time..and stood saying coldly, after you, no, after you.
P5. to be after
(a) To be trying to get or achieve (something).
1680 W. Petyt v. 59
The French and Dutch have been after our Wooll since they set up their Woollen Manufactures; why have they and their Agents been lurking on our Coasts..to filch it away for so many years?
1775 R. B. Sheridan v. ii. 152
What tricks are you after now?
1895 Sept. 581/2
I wonder what he is after?
1936 P. G. Wodehouse iv. 49
That's all she's after—the title.
2001 K. Sampson
I'm after a full ounce of the pure Chanel No. 5 perfume.
(b) To be in pursuit of (a person), esp. with hostile intent; to be trying to get into the company of (a person).In quot. : to attend to, keep watch upon (a person). Cf. , .
1796 G. Walker
III. ii. 36
I'm after a d—d cunning fellow, who, I believe, is not always above ground.
1856 C. M. Yonge i. vii. 67
You are a little bit of a sloven, and..some one must be always after you.
1885 ‘P. Cushing’ III. iii. xi. 226
I'm after a Mr. Montaigne as lives thereabouts. Maybe you could direct me to his place?
1955 J. P. Donleavy xv. 158
A Mr. Skully, a former landlord, is after me for money.
2006 L. Soderlind 74
Maybe I was after every woman I ever saw.
(c) To urge (a person) repeatedly to do something; to nag or harass (a person) about something.
1859 W. B. Fowle 295
Mother and the parson are after me to go to the Sunday-school, but I won't go.
1866 W. M. Baker iv. 29/2
Not a day, not an hour of the day, but his old companions were after him to enlist.
1915 O. M. Shackelforth xviii. 179
I have been after him about being so unconcerned about the future and I referred to you as an example.
1984 11 Oct. 2/2
His suppliers will be after him to increase the price he pays for their parts.
2005 L. R. Burge xii. 141
Romy's been after me for years about my old Chevy here, but I know she's a good solid piece of American steelwork.
Chiefly Irish English
. With gerund.
[Reflecting a construction of the Irish perfective aspect, which is formed with the verb bí (originally in any tense) and a preposition or prepositional phrase with the sense ‘after’ (originally iar, ar, air ‘after’ (Early Irish íar , ar : see ), since the 18th cent. usually tar éis, d'éis (and variants of these), or i ndiaidh), followed by a verbal noun. In Irish, this scope of this construction narrowed in the course of the 18th and 19th cent. and it is now chiefly used to refer to completed actions in the immediate past; in Scottish Gaelic, by contrast, the construction bi to be + air + verbal noun has come to function as the regular perfect tense (compare also the regular modern Welsh perfect tense formed with bod to be + wedi ‘after’ + verbal noun).
The earliest uses of this construction in Irish English refer to future events. In e.g. quot. this corresponds to standard English ‘will have been’ and is within the semantic and grammatical range of the Irish construction at the time; the later narrowing in sense of to the immediate past mirrors the same development within Irish. The early uses in probably developed from this (within English), although they are attested slightly earlier. They disappear in parallel with the narrowing of the perfective uses in Irish and Irish English, but are occasionally found later in the speech of stereotypes in works written outside Ireland. Compare discussion in R. Hickey Irish Eng. (2007) 197–208.
The construction is found in Irish English and in varieties of English in other parts of the world (especially North America), which were influenced by Irish English. It is also found in the English of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, where it reflects the equivalent construction in Scottish Gaelic.]
(a) To be in the act of, on the point of, desirous of (doing something).
c1670 Purgatorium Hibernicum
(National Libr. Ireland MS 470)
in A. Carpenter
Ffen beggars must be after chooseing.
1715 S. Centlivre 3
An will you be after giving me the Moidore indeed, and by my Shoul now?
1792 H. H. Brackenridge I. iv. iii. 99
The Irishman..utterly refused to be after fighting in any such manner.
1827 J. Barrington I. 208
Then it's fitter..for you to be after putting your sign there in your pocket.
a1897 F. B. Lloyd
He was after savin lost souls and was willin to let other men save the country.
1916 J. B. Cooper viii. 93
‘Gorrah!’ exclaimed Mrs. O'Callaghan. ‘Is he after makin' me drunk?’
(b) To have completed the action of, to have just finished (doing something).In early use frequently with reference to future events (cf. quot. ); in later use chiefly retrospective.
1682 T. Shadwell v. 63
When I do go home, I vill be after being absolv'd for it.
1725 7 Apr. 7/2
I wash after asking her which Way she wash walking.
1796 14 Sept. 781/2
He was after coming from the country.
1828 T. C. Croker II. 74
It is not every lady..that would be after making [sc. would have made] such an offer.
1847 A. Trollope II. i. 17
Thank ye, Mr. Kelly, but I am afther taking a little jist now.
1895 J. Barlow viii. 169
They were after hangin' a lad up at the jail.
1922 J. Joyce ii. xii. [Cyclops] 288
Sure I'm after seeing him not five minutes ago.
?1930 L. MacInnes 16
Dae ye ken whut he's jist efter tellin' me.
1938 P. Kavanagh xxv. 260
If it wasn't the turnips it was the pigs were after breaking loose, or a hen they wanted me help catch for the fowl dealer.
1958 B. Behan i. 125
Well, I was after living through the winter and on the ninth I would be seventeen.
1985 M. Munro 6
Ah'm just after being tae the doctor's.
1997 C. McPherson 40
Sure, you were after getting a terrible shock.
P6. after me (also us) the deluge : =
[After French après moi le déluge ]
1755 J. Mills tr. J. B. L. Crevier II. vi. 415
He [sc. Tiberius] had frequently in his mouth a Greek verse, whose sense answers to the expression now in use, to shew an indifference to the human species, After me the deluge [Fr. Après moi le déluge].
1851 10 Apr. 5/5
‘After me the deluge,’ said Prince Metternich—a fine saying, but a false prophecy we trust.
1875 E. S. Carr iii. 25
Wherever the selfish pursuit of profit, the vile principle ‘After us the Deluge’, has been the ruling motive, the deluge has followed.
1922 R. Hichens i. 53
That noticeable and almost reckless egoism which is summed up by the laconic saying, ‘after me the deluge’.
1979 J. Crosby xxv. 162
We are the last survivors..expiring in a shower of expensive sparks. After us, the Deluge.
2008 A. Martin tr. R. F. Monzote 272
[He] lamented that the attitude of producers was one of ‘after me the deluge’.
after-the-event adj. occurring or performed after a particular event, frequently with the implication of being too late; characterized by retrospectivity.
1872 T. Wright I. i. vii. 188
There was not wanting a number of the after-the-event school of prophets, who..had ‘known what it would all come to’, and had ‘told you so’.
1922 ‘R. Crompton’
‘We di'n't ought to have set off before dinner,’ said the squire with after-the-event wisdom.
2007 R. E. S. Tanner iii. 52
Religion becomes for Christians no more than the subject for after-the-event evaluations.
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This entry has been updated (OED Third Edition, September 2011).
In this entry:
In other dictionaries:
- My entries(1)
- afrormosia, n.1923
- Afro-Saxon, n. and adj.1902
- Afrotropical, adj.1942
- afrown, adj.1869
- Afshar, n.1909
- aft, n.1772
- aft, adv. and adj.eOE
- after, n.21906
- after, adj. and n.1eOE
- after, adv., prep., ...eOE
- after-, prefixeOE
- afterbeat, n.1853
- afterbirth, n.1527
- after-blow, n.11607
- after-blow, n.21879
- after-born, adj. and n.OE
- afterburden, n.?a1450
- afterburn, n.1917
- afterburner, n.1947
- afterburning, n. and...1855
- aftercare, n.1595
- aftercast, n.a1393
- after-chrome, adj.1904
- after-chrome, v.1890
- after-chroming, n.1890
- afterclap, n.c1330
- after-comer, n.a1382
- after-coming, n.a1382
- after-coming, adj.c1454
- aftercool, v.1900
- aftercooled, adj.1923
- aftercooler, n.1897
- aftercooling, n.1900
- after-course, n.1580
- after-crop, n.1562
- after-crop, v.1573
- after-cropping, n.1586
- afterday, n.1591
- afterdeal, n.1481
- after-death, n. and ...1650