, ME religeoun
, ME religioune
, ME religiune
, ME relygeoun
, ME relygioun
, ME relygyoun
, ME relygyun
, ME–15 relegyon
, ME–15 religiun
, ME–15 religyone
, ME–15 relygion
, ME–15 relygione
, ME–15 relygyon
, ME–16 religeon
, ME–16 religione
, ME–16 religioun
, ME–16 religyon
, ME–17 religon
, ME– religion
, lME riligioun
, 15 relegion
, 15 relygyone
, 15–16 relligion
, pre-17 relegioun
, pre-17 relegioune
, pre-17 releidgeon
, pre-17 reliegieoun
, pre-17 religeoun
, pre-17 religeowne
, pre-17 religione
, pre-17 religioun
, pre-17 religioune
, pre-17 religyowne
, pre-17 relligion
, pre-17 relygyon
, pre-17 relygyoun
, pre-17 relygyoune
, pre-17 relygyown
, pre-17 relygyowne
, pre-17 17– religion
, 18– releegion
. (Show Less)
Origin: Of multiple origins. Partly a borrowing from French. Partly a borrowing from Latin. Etymons: French religion; Latin religiōn-, religiō.
< Anglo-Norman religioun
, Anglo-Norman and Old French, Middle French religion
) system of beliefs and practices based on belief in, or acknowledgement of, some superhuman power or powers, also any particular such system (both first half of the 12th cent. in Anglo-Norman, originally in commune religion
, translating post-classical Latin catholica religio
; the figurative use in sense
is apparently not paralleled in French until later (c
1810)), monastery (c
1130 in Anglo-Norman), religious house (1139 in Anglo-Norman), action or conduct indicating belief in, obedience to, and reverence for a god, gods, or similar superhuman power, piety, devotion (c
1145), state of life bound by religious vows (c
1150), scrupulousness, conscientiousness (c
1210), religious order (end of the 13th cent. or earlier in Anglo-Norman), (specifically) Protestantism (1533 in ceulx de la religion
the Protestants, lit. ‘those of the religion’) and its etymon classical Latin religiōn-
supernatural feeling of constraint, usually having the force of a prohibition or impediment, that which is prohibited, taboo, positive obligation, rule, impediment to action proceeding from religious awe or conscience, scruple, manifestation of divine sanction, religious fear, awe, religious feeling, superstition, quality evoking awe or reverence, sanctity, religious observance, religious practice, ritual, particular system of religious observance, cult, conscientiousness, in post-classical Latin also monastic community (8th cent.), religious order, rule observed by a religious order (12th cent.) < re-
+ a second element of uncertain origin; by Cicero connected with relegere
to read over again (see ), so that the supposed original sense of ‘religion’ would have been ‘painstaking observance of rites’, but by later authors (especially by early Christian writers) with religāre
, ‘religion’ being taken as ‘that which ties believers to God’. Each view finds supporters among modern scholars.
Compare Old Occitan religio (late 12th cent., earliest in sense ‘religious order’), Catalan religió (13th cent.), Spanish religión (end of the 12th cent.), Portuguese religião (13th cent.), Italian religione (second half of the 13th cent.). The Latin word was also borrowed into other Germanic languages: compare Middle Dutch, Dutch †religioen state of life bound by religious vows, religie system of faith and worship, belief in superhuman powers, etc., Middle Low German religiōn, religie, German Religion (early 16th cent.), Swedish religion (1539), Danish religion (16th cent.).
P1. man (woman, etc.) of religion : a person bound by religious vows, as a monk or nun; a member of the clergy. Now historical.
[Probably after Anglo-Norman home de religiun, Anglo-Norman and Old French home de religion (c1227; Middle French, French homme de religion), and Anglo-Norman gent de religiun, Anglo-Norman and Old French, Middle French gent de religion (1275 or earlier in Anglo-Norman; French gent de religion), although attested slightly earlier. With woman of religion compare Middle French dame de religion nun (1364 or earlier), and also Anglo-Norman dame de religiun abbess, prioress (1328 or earlier).]
a1200 MS Trin. Cambr. in R. Morris
2nd Ser. 49 (MED)
Ac þis loc [sc. of perfection] ne haueð non to offren bute þese lif holie men of religiun.
King edgar & seint aþelwold..An oþer hous..hii rerde of seinte marie, Of womman of religyon & made a nonnerye.
By his heued ben bitokned gode prelates of holy chirche. By þe heer þe Men of Religioun [Fr. la gent de religiun] þat shullen ben white þorouȝ holynesse.
Renkez of relygioun þat reden and syngen And aprochen to hys presens and prestez arn called..Þay hondel þer [sc. at the altar] his aune body and usen hit boþe.
Nune, womann of relygione, monialis, monacha.
J. Lydgate tr. G. Deguileville
The cheff vyker..Haue set..Somme folkys of relygyon Hys offys to excersyce.
a1578 R. Lindsay
This bischope and the lordis of reliegieoun..gaif sentance against this innocent man.
1670 J. Evelyn tr. 296
The Iesuites..might practise on him the Doctrine of their Father Amy, who allows a man of Religion to kill him who publishes things scandalous of his Order.
a1707 W. Petyt
Others which had Offices perpetual, should be as perpetual as People of Religion.
1809 Jan. 57
The whole of this statute is in force, except those parts which relate to Prelates, men of Religion, and writs of attaint.
1878 ‘Ouida’ III. xxxi. 46
As women of religion, with the red cross on their breasts, bend over the wide war-wounds of naked men, so she beheld corruption.
1911 G. Hodges 239
The principal business of a man of religion,—a priest, a monk, or a friar,—was to say prayers.
1996 L. M. Bitel viii. 168
Their stories of lustfully wayward women of religion.
P2. house (also †abbey) of religion : a religious house, esp. a monastery or nunnery; (in later use also) a place of worship, as a church, mosque, or synagogue.
[After Anglo-Norman maisun de religiun, Old French, Middle French maison de religion (1265).]
a1325 St. Thomas Becket
l. 561 in C. D'Evelyn & A. J. Mill
He grantede ek þat a churche of þe kynges fe..ne ssolde iȝiue be As to hous of religion wiþoute þe kynges leue.
Sacrilege is..huanne me bernþ oþer brekþ cherches..oþer hous of relygioun.
He buryed Bedewere Hys frend..And so he dude other Echon In Abbeys of Relygyon.
?1449 Petition in
Temporaltees of Bisshuprichez, Abbathiez, Prioriez, and of all othir Housez of Religion.
c1536 in J. Speed
ix. xxi. 773/1
Spoiled in like maner..as the housys of Religion hath bene.
1569 R. Grafton II. 144
Many houses of relygion within the Citie..were searched for goodes of aliauntes.
1603 G. Downame ii. 27
Vpon them there doe yet remaine, besides some of the Popes palaces and courts, diuers churches and houses of religion and other buildings of note.
1679 Bp. J. Gordon ii. 27
Monasteries..might have been still Houses of Religion, without having any dependance upon Rome.
1733 Capt. Downes iii. ii. 33
I am retir'd into a House of Religion; not vowed, but for Probation.
1819 W. Scott
III. vi. 139
Albert had received within a house of religion the Jewish captive, and..the paramour of a brother of the Order.
1861 R. C. Jenkins vii. 373
He dismissed accordingly all the brothers that were there,..and formed the house anew into a house of religion.
1910 25 607
The committee..expects important results from the excavation of early monastic localities... The sites of these ancient houses of religion should be carefully examined.
31 Dec. a16
Our governments, schools, hospitals and houses of religion are virtually bankrupt.
2008 D. Wilson i. ii. 37
To the nineteen houses of religion already in existence was added the Convent of St Mary Magdalene.
P3. to make (a) religion of
, to make (it) (a) religion to
a. To make a point of; to be scrupulously careful to.In later use with indefinite article in forms to make a religion of and to make it a religion to.
1561 Gen. xxxix. 4
Because God prospered him: and so he made religion to serue his profite.
a1616 W. Shakespeare
v. ii. 195
By your command (Which my loue makes Religion to obey) I tell you this.
1742 R. North & M. North 167
The factious Party made it Religion to propagate the Faith of the Plot..as far as they could carry it by their Correspondences.
1869 W. M. Baker 199
Its acidity sharpens Mr. Wall's teeth.., yet, under the circumstances, he makes a religion of eating it.
1916 ‘W. D. Bank’ xiv. 177
He had resumed his visits to the club, but did not make it a religion to go there every night.
1980 S. Fish ix. 219
Had he not made a religion of keeping to his word, then his breaking of it could not have been cited by Aufidius as a capital crime.
†b. To make a point of not; to be scrupulously careful not to. Obsolete.
1601 B. Jonson v. v. sig. L3v
Let Mortalls learne To make Religion of offending Heauen.
1617 J. Hales 29
The ancients seeme to haue made a religion to meddle with it [sc. the book of Revelation], and thought it much better to admire it with silence, then to adventure to expound it.
1622 H. Peacham vi. 44
Nor bee so foolish precise as a number are, who make it Religion to speake otherwise then this or that Author.
P4. Originally U.S. to get religion : to be converted; (in extended use) to take matters seriously, to give proper attention to an issue.
1772 A. Hunter Let. 18 Mar. in P. V. Fithian
We have had a considerable stir of religion in college since you went away, Lewis Willson is thought to have got religion.
1802 Nov. 432
A number, too, are wrought upon in the usual way, and hopefully get religion without any of these extraordinary appearances.
1857 C. W. Elliott I. 460
Capt. Underhill killed his neighbor's wife, and ‘got his religion on a pipe of tobacco’.
1908 ‘E. C. Hall’
We went home feelin' like we'd been through a big protracted meetin' and got religion over again.
1952 9 Oct. 7
It is sad news for his publishers that he has got religion.
1993 26 Mar. a 28/1
The White House spokesman said the formal plan may not be ready for another few weeks, so it's still possible his boss may get religion.
2001 22 Oct. 73/1
The Bush Administration..has suddenly got religion about tracking down terrorists' assets..and an array of other tools on law enforcement's wish list.
religion of nature n.
(a) = ;
(b) a religion involving the worship of natural objects and phenomena in place of a more formal system of religious belief.
1622 G. Goodman 32
If you consider the Creatures, betweene God and God, in stead of a naturall discourse, here you haue a religion of nature.
1730 M. Tindal
Christianity as old as Creation, a republication of the Religion of Nature.
1827 F. A. Walter tr. B. G. Niebuhr I. xxii. 265
The early religion of the Latins was a religion of nature [Ger. Naturdienst].
1895 J. Kidd v. 191
Vedism..was a religion of nature. The objects of its worship..were the powers of nature.
1902 W. James iv. 91
In that ‘theory of evolution’ which..has within the past twenty-five years swept so rapidly over Europe and America, we see the ground laid for a new sort of religion of Nature, which has entirely displaced Christianity from the thought of a large part of our generation.
1954 R. N. Stromberg iii. 31
Committed to a religion of nature, they [sc. deists] suspected that the whole Christian revelation was no more than a tissue of lies and fables.
1961 D. G. James i. 22
The essay itself is given up chiefly to a warm exposition of her religion of nature.
1997 N. Walter 49
Ernst Haeckel, the German advocate of Darwinism (and inventor of Ecology in 1866), advocated a religion of nature called Monism.
P6. religion of the book: a religion entailing adherence to a book of divine revelation; spec. Judaism, Christianity, or Islam. Cf. .
1830 Oct. 560
Mahommedanism has been received by negro nations with more confidence, because it is the religion of the Book,—a written, and, as they believe, an attested religion, of the truth of which the koran is the record and the proof.
1888 B. Manly i. i. 13
Christianity is the Religion of the Book.
1941 58 23
Mohammed considers himself not the founder of a new religion but rather a protagonist of the age-old religion of the Book.
1991 R. Oliver
When Islam eventually became a religion of the book, other ‘people of the book’, Christians and Jews, were specifically excluded from the operations of the holy war.
1992 M. E. Marty & R. S. Appleby i. 21
It is relatively easy to locate the fundamentalist groundings in the three faiths called the Religions of the Book.
P7. religion of humanity: the humanistic religion founded by Auguste Comte; see .
[After French réligion de l'Humanité (1844 or earlier in Comte).]
1852 New Ser. 1 347
Comte presents himself as the founder of the religion of humanity, as the systematic upholder of the supremacy of moral life.
1925 G. K. Chesterton i. iv. 89
The Religion of Humanity was a term commonly applied to Comtism, the theory of certain rationalists who worshipped corporate mankind as a Supreme Being.
2000 P. A. Mellor in A. Hastings et al. 678/2
Comte..sought to develop his own ‘religion of humanity’ complete with sociologist-priests, altars, a calendar of feast days, and modes of worship.
P8. religion is the opium of the people and variants: see .
, objective and instrumental.
religion-arousing adj. rare
1927 J. S. Huxley viii. 314
Potential religion-arousing objects.
1891 28 Feb. 290/3
Apostle Lund was pleased to learn that the religion classes had commenced.
1972 5 Jan. 10/5
Religion classes conducted by students and ex-students of the college were not religious at all.
2003 N. al-Radi
Apparently Hammoodi is taking religion classes.
† religion-dresser n. Obsolete rare
a1634 J. Day
This new vicker was made out of an olde ffrier, that had bene twice turnd at a Religion-dressers.
1961 J. B. Wilson ii. 120
Thus J. R. Lucas..even puts in a good word for the religion-game.
2004 M. Lyon xv. 159
Jesus gave a warning to not play into the religion game.
† religion infectious adj. Obsolete rare
a1700 A. Shields
Such as are..Religion Infectious, like to spread, and leaven all in Communion with such a Congregation.
1697 J. Partridge i. xii. 103
He was but an obscure fellow before he fell upon this Crafty Design of Religion-making.
1762 O. Goldsmith II. 183
They are arrived at such refinement in religion-making, that they have actually formed a new sect without a new opinion.
1888 Mrs. H. Ward III. vii. xlix. 360
We are in the full stream of religion-making.
2001 S. Clarke in A. Sharma xvii. 183
The acceptance of being merely a counter force in culture-weaving and religion-making appears to acquiesce to the secondary role of Dalit culture.
religion-masked adj. rare
1633 J. Ford v. sig. I2
Your relligion-masked sorceries.
16 Feb. a19
Religion-masked extremism feeds on poverty, deprivation and ignorance.
religion-mender n. now rare
1647 No. 1. sig. A4v
A further account concerning the affaires of our Syon, and the..Religion-makers, Menders, or Marers there.
1737 E. Smith 19
These are some of the Nostrums of our great Religion-Mender.
1822 J. Hook I. i. 16
I never knew any good come of your state-menders or religion-menders. They all make more holes than they stop.
1824 W. E. Andrews I. 380
The irreligious and blasphemous pretentions of those religion-menders.
1625 J. Stradling iii. 122
That religion-monger Mohomet.
The Fathers [are represented as]..a Parcel of old passive Religion-Mongers.
1878 G. J. Romanes 136
Religion-mongers as a class are apt to show too little regard for the sentiments, as distinguished from the beliefs, of those to whom they offer their wares.
1908 11 Nov. 14/3
Is..Dionysus a god, or a religion-monger from the East..with a knack of mesmerism?
Though most people profess to be religious, they fear religion-mongers. So few vote for religious parties.
† religion-raptured adj. Obsolete rare
1797 R. Southey tr. P. de Azevedo Tojal Charles Redeemed in 341
The fervid soul of that blest Maid, Religion-raptur'd.
1892 6 Aug. 216/3
She had occupied the position of president of the Young Ladies' Association, secretary of the Sabbath school and class teacher in the religion school.
1897 9 663
The Religion-school is not the place for such explanations.
1961 V. G. Simmons xviii. 119
A flourishing religion school is the guarantee of Jewish consciousness.
1999 30 July 12/5
David Schwarzmann, who has retired after 31 years as headmaster of Edgware Reform Synagogue's religion school, had been given a special kiddush and presentation.
The proper attitude of religion teachers towards scientific experts.
1942 10 132/2
The note of inspiration is carried further in the religion teacher's task of counselling.
28 Feb. 5
He was fired from his job as a religion teacher at a Catholic girls high school in Queens.
religion complex n.
(a) Psychology a complex () relating to religion;
(b) a complex of buildings serving a religious function.
1922 Oct. 117
Such complexes clearly exist in the normal mind with perfectly free access to consciousness, e.g. the ‘religion complex’.
1934 M. H. Weseen 58
Jesus stiff, a tramp with a religion complex.
His religion complex in Northwest Arkansas included the Christ of the Ozarks statue.
17 Feb. (This Week section) 1
The 241-acre facility has its own pharmacy, dentists, barbershop, religion complex, recreational facility and doctors.
† religion man n.
[compare earlier ]
Obsolete a member of a religious order; a member of the clergy.
Religioun men alway wonnyng in the court..It may wele ryme, but it accordith nought.
a1538 A. Abell Roit or Quheill of Tyme f. 30 v, in at Religion
Be prechin of dewote religioun men.
religion shop n. humorous or depreciative a church.
1811 L.-M. Hawkins II. xxvii. 79
Well may scoffers talk of the ‘religion-shops’ of London.
1911 C. Marsland i. 16
See the nat'ral cur'osity as is to start a religion shop, an' grind us fellers inter angels.
20 Dec. 13
The church boasts branches in about 40 countries—including its first 24-hour one-stop religion shop in Japan.
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This entry has been updated (OED Third Edition, December 2009).
In this entry:
In other dictionaries:
- My entries(1)
- religate, v.1598
- religation, n.1604
- relight, n.1945
- relight, v.1662
- relighting, n.1844
- relighting, adj.1889
- religieuse, n.1682
- religieux, n.?a1649
- religio-, comb. form1779
- religionary, n. and ...1622
- religionate, v.1676
- religioner, n.1808
- religionism, n.1706
- religionist, n.1651
- religionize, v.1706
- religionized, adj.1830
- religionizing, n.1683
- religionizing, adj.1822
- religionless, adj. a...1648
- religiose, n.a1657
- religiose, adj.1853
- religioso, n.11708
- religioso, adj., adv...1792
- relimb, v.1821
- relimit, v.a1794
- relimitation, n.1787
- reline, n.1934
- reline, v.11796
- reline, v.21886
- reliner, n.1878
- relining, n.1839
- relinque, v.1483
- relinquent, n. and adj.a1665
- relinquished, adj.1635
- relinquisher, n.1597
- relinquishing, n.1545
- relinquishment, n.1593
- reliquaire, n.1611
- reliquarian, adj.1861
- reliquary, n.1550