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peace, n.

Forms:  early Middle English pies, Middle English pais, Middle English paise, Middle English pasch, Middle English payse, Middle English peaix, Middle English peasse, Middle English peaxce, Middle English péés, Middle English peese, Middle English peis, Middle English peix, Middle English peos, Middle English pess, Middle English peyce, Middle English peys, Middle English þees (transmission error), Middle English–1500s pays, Middle English–1500s peax, Middle English–1500s pece, Middle English–1500s pees, Middle English–1500s pes, Middle English–1500s pese, Middle English–1500s pesse, Middle English–1600s peas, Middle English–1600s pease, Middle English–1600s peece, Middle English– peace, 1500s peaxe, 1600s piece, 1800s– pays (Irish English (northern)); Scottish pre-1700 pache, pre-1700 paiche, pre-1700 pais, pre-1700 paise, pre-1700 paix, pre-1700 pasch, pre-1700 pasche, pre-1700 payce, pre-1700 peac, pre-1700 peasche, pre-1700 peax, pre-1700 peaxe, pre-1700 pece, pre-1700 peche, pre-1700 peece, pre-1700 pees, pre-1700 peex, pre-1700 peice, pre-1700 peich, pre-1700 peis, pre-1700 peiss, pre-1700 peix, pre-1700 pes, pre-1700 pese, pre-1700 pess, pre-1700 pesse, pre-1700 pex, pre-1700 pexe, pre-1700 peys, pre-1700 pice, pre-1700 1700s– peace, pre-1700 1800s paice, pre-1700 1800s pease, pre-1700 1900s– pace (now Shetland), pre-1700 1900s– peas, 1800s peese, 1800s– paece (Shetland). N.E.D. (1904) also records a form Middle English payes. (Show Less)
Frequency (in current use):  Show frequency band information
Origin: A borrowing from French. Etymons: French pes, pais.
Etymology: < Anglo-Norman pes, peas, pees, pais, etc., and Old French pais, pes, pez, Old French, Middle French, French paix tranquillity in relations between two or more individuals (second half of the 10th cent.), state of tranquillity which comes about as a result of fulfilling religious duties (c1050), peaceful relations between fellow citizens (c1100), condition of a nation or state which is not at war (c1100), freedom from anxiety or inner conflict (12th cent.), truce (c1200), peace treaty (1317) < classical Latin pac-  , pāx   peace, order, security, amity, concord, tranquillity, calm, stillness, pact or settlement, peace personified, goddess of peace, in post-classical Latin also the kiss of peace (3rd cent.), enforcement of public order (6th cent.), protection guaranteed by the monarch to certain people (9th cent.), osculatory (from 12th cent. in British sources) < a stem pāc-  , parallel form of pāg-  , stem of pāgina   (also pag-  , stem of pangere  : see further s.v. pact n.). Compare Old Occitan paz   (c1070; Occitan patz  ), Catalan pau   (1251; earlier as paz   (c1150) and pad   (c1200)), Spanish paz   (1207), Portuguese paz   (1145), Italian pace   (13th cent.). Compare pax n.1
In Middle English the vowel shows monophthongization of ai   to open ē   (as reflected also in the Anglo-Norman forms). Middle English final -s   shows an unvoiced final consonant, subsequently represented by -ce  .
In sense 4b, following post-classical Latin pax   and Hellenistic Greek εἰρήνη  , ‘peace’ often represents Hebrew šālōm  , properly denoting ‘safety, welfare, prosperity’.
With the king's peace   (see sense 9) compare Old English cyninges grið  ; compare also:
c1290   Britton (1865) I. i. i. §4. 4   En dreit des Justices..de terminer apeaus et autres trespas fetz encountre nostre pes.
1327   King Edward III De Assumptione Rogiminis in A. Clarke & F. Holbrooke Rymer & Sanderson's Fœdera (1821) II. i. 183   Ne quis..dictam pacem nostram infringere, seu violere, præsumat.
With to keep the peace   (see Phrases 5a) compare:
1326–7   in Statutes of Realm (1810) I. 257   Pur la pees meultz garder..le Roi veot qen chescun Countee que bones gentz..soient assignez a la garde de la pees.
 I. General uses.

 a. Freedom from civil unrest or disorder; public order and security. to make peace : to enforce public order (now archaic).In quot. ?a11601   with reference to the forest laws.

?a1160   Anglo-Saxon Chron. (Laud) (Peterborough contin.) anno 1140   Pais he makede men & dær.
?a1160   Anglo-Saxon Chron. (Laud) (Peterborough contin.) anno 1140   Alle diden him manred, & suoren þe pais to halden, & hit ward sone suythe god pais.
c1300  (?a1200)    Laȝamon Brut (Otho) 1261   Al Brutaine ȝeo wiste..in griþe and paise [c1275 Calig. friðe].
c1400  (?c1280)    Old Test. Hist. in F. J. Furnivall Adam Davy's 5 Dreams (1878) 98 (MED)   Good pais þere was in hil londe þer while he kyng was.
1474   in J. B. Sheppard Let. Bks. Monastery Christ Church Canterbury (1889) 275 (MED)   Tranquillite and assured peax within forth is the oonly moyen by the which any reame or comynalte..hath growen to abundance and richesse.
c1515   Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) lxvi. 228   I haue..maynteyned the countre in peace & rest and good iustyce.
a1586   R. Maitland Complaint aganis Lang. Law-suites in W. A. Craigie Maitland Folio MS (1919) I. clxxiv. 431   Thair sall daylie incress In to this land guid pece & polacie.
1643   W. Prynne Soveraigne Power Parl. i. 21   Perswaded, while that King-bane breathed, peace could never be maintained in the Realme.
1670   Earl of Clarendon Ess. in Tracts (1727) 209   Peace is that harmony in the state, that health is in the body.
1740   D. Hume Treat. Human Nature III. ii. 150   Now this is exactly the case with regard to our civil duties, or obedience to the magistrate; without which no government cou'd subsist, nor any peace or order be maintain'd in large societies.
1794   tr. J.-P. Brissot de Warville To his Constituents Pref. 24   Roland and the Brissotins..endeavouring to preserve peace.
1835   E. Bulwer-Lytton Rienzi I. i. iii. 43   He belongs to a horrible gang of miscreants, sworn against all order and peace.
1875   W. Stubbs Constit. Hist. III. xviii. 243   In the task of defence against foreign foes and in the maintenance of internal peace.
1955   G. Gorer Exploring Eng. Char. App.1 308   From its foundation, the emphasis of the British Police force has been on the preservation of peace, on the prevention of crime and violence, rather than the apprehension of criminals and rioters.
1992   J. L. Esposito Islamic Threat ii. 39   Religious communities were required to pay a poll or head tax, in exchange for which they were entitled to peace and security.

?a1160—1992(Hide quotations)


 b. With the: the public order of a state as provided for by law. Now esp. in institutional and personal titles, as officer of the peace, precept of the peace; commission, conservator, justice, sergeant, sessions of the peace, etc. (see under first elements).Also (now archaic) with possessive: local public order maintained under the authority or jurisdiction specified (as the king's (also queen's) peace , etc.; similarly God's peace). See also British peace n. at British adj. and n. Compounds 2, English peace n. at English adj. and n. Compounds 1c. to be sworn of the peace : to be made a magistrate or justice of the peace (now rare).

c1300   St. Thomas Becket (Laud) 440 in C. Horstmann Early S.-Eng. Legendary (1887) 119 (MED)   Him þouȝt þat swuch lawe scholde þe pais of þe londe a-spille.
1387–8   Petition London Mercers in R. W. Chambers & M. Daunt Bk. London Eng. (1931) 34   In the same yere the forsaid Nichol..ayein the pees made dyuerse enarmynges.
a1400  (c1303)    R. Mannyng Handlyng Synne (Harl.) 6803   Swych ryche men þat are aȝens Goddys pes.
1426   in H. Nicolas Proc. & Ordinances Privy Council (1834) III. 220   Item, þat þe justices of pees be every yeer chaunged..and semblably þe clercs of þe pees.
1467   in J. T. Smith & L. T. Smith Eng. Gilds (1870) 388 (MED)   That no man go armed..in distorbynge of the kynges pease and people.
1499   in N. Riding Rec. (1894) New Ser. I. 180   Ther was a precept of the peax made.
1538   King Henry VIII Let. to Wyatt 4 May (R.)   The world percase fantazing us to be an interturber of the peace, rather than an indifferent mediator.
1569   R. Grafton Chron. II. 633   Continuall watch was kept by the Maior and senate of London,..for the preseruacion of the peace, and continuance of good order.
1607   J. Cowell Interpreter sig. Rrr2/2   Suyte of the Kings peace..is the persiewing of a man for breach of the K. peace.
a1616   W. Shakespeare Merry Wives of Windsor (1623) ii. iii. 49   I am sworn of the peace .  View more context for this quotation
1667   in W. Cramond Ann. Cullen (1888) 51   £20 to be peyt to the toune for..disturbing the peace theroff.
1755   R. Burn Justice of Peace II. 429   Surety for the peace is the acknowledging a recognizance, or bond, to the king,..for the keeping the peace.
1765   W. Blackstone Comm. Laws Eng. I. Introd. iv. 117   Offences were said to be done against his peace in whose court they were tried: in a court-leet, contra pacem domini.
1816   W. Scott Antiquary II. vii. 187   Better than he deserves, for disturbing us with his vixen brawls, and breaking God's peace and the king's.
1848   J. J. S. Wharton Law Lexicon 554/1   Public prosecutor, the Queen, in whose name criminals are prosecuted, because all offences are said to be against the Queen's peace, her Crown, and dignity.
1883   J. R. Green Conq. Eng. v. 212   The public peace, or observance of the customary right by man towards man, has become the king's peace, the observance of which is due to the will of the lord.
1900   J. G. Scott & J. P. Hardiman Gazetteer Upper Burma I. i. ix. 547   This personage orders a couple to be married, and married they are, just as a man might be sworn of the peace.
1900   Daily News 16 July 6/3   In Durham,..it was correct to speak, not of the king's peace, but of the bishop's peace.
1927   F. M. Thrasher Gang i. 3   Delinquencies among its members all the way from truancy to serious crimes, disturbances of the peace [etc.].
1987   N. Ward Dawson's Govt. Canada (ed. 6) xiii. 256   They accepted precedents as trustworthy guides in maintaining the king's peace in his realm.
2003   Asheville (N. Carolina) Citizen-Times (Nexis) 18 May 13 a   Conscientious officers who exercise mature self-control and sound judgment as they go about their duties as public servants and officers of the peace.

c1300—2003(Hide quotations)


 2. Freedom from quarrels or dissension between individuals (or, esp. in early use, between an individual and God); a state of friendliness; amity, concord.Sometimes used in a generalized sense, with elements of senses 3   and 4. See also Phrases 2   and Phrases 3.

a1225  (?OE)    MS Lamb. in R. Morris Old Eng. Homilies (1868) 1st Ser. 141 (MED)   Sunnedei makede ure drihten pes..bi-tweone gode and monne.
a1225  (c1200)    Vices & Virtues (1888) 59 (MED)   Siec ðat tu haue pais aȝeanes gode.
c1225  (?c1200)    St. Juliana (Bodl.) 732   & custe ham coss os [read of] peis.
a1325  (c1280)    Southern Passion (Pepys 2344) (1927) 990 (MED)   Ich bytwene ywis Pees among ȝow ȝiue, þe pees þat myn is.
c1384   Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) (Douce 369(2)) (1850) Eph. iv. 3   Bisy for to kepe vnite of spirit in the bond of pees [L. vinculo pacis].
?a1425   Chron. Papacy 29 in Jrnl. Eng. & Germanic Philol. (1942) 41 176 (MED)   Pope Innocente ordeyned..þe cusse of pesse to be ȝeuun in þe masse.
c1475  (?c1300)    Guy of Warwick (Caius) 10256 (MED)   Lyve in pease and not in stryfe, Dysheryt no man.
a1500  (a1450)    Generides (Trin. Cambr.) 3416   The pese shall sone be twix vs twoo.
1534   T. Cromwell in R. B. Merriman Life & Lett. T. Cromwell (1902) I. 396   All malice and evill will being..expulsed.., good amyte peax & quyetnes may take place.
1645   J. Milton On Time in Poems 20   When every thing that is sincerely good..With Truth, and Peace, and Love shall ever shine.
a1648   Ld. Herbert Life Henry VIII (1649) 549   But that this question..might well be omitted for Peace sake.
1794   S. T. Coleridge Domest. Peace in Compl. Poet. Wks. (1912) I. 71   Tell me, on what holy ground May Domestic Peace be found, Halcyon daughter of the skies.
1833   C. Williams Fall River ii. 32   A contention which has embittered many former friends against each other, created many heart-burnings, assailed the peace of families,..and in some places almost depopulated churches.
1845   C. Brontë Let. in E. C. Gaskell Life C. Brontë (1857) xiii   As long as he remains at home, I scarce dare hope for peace in the house.
1864   C. Dickens Our Mutual Friend (1865) I. i. iii. 14   We should have no peace in our place, if that got touched upon.
1915   V. Woolf Voy. Out xxiv   There seemed to be peace between them. It might be love, but it was not the love of man for woman.
2002   R. Padel Voodoo Shop 1   A philanderer Who says what he doesn't mean.., who couldn't give a toss for domestic peace.

a1225—2002(Hide quotations)


 a. Freedom from anxiety, disturbance (emotional, mental, or spiritual), or inner conflict; calm, tranquillity.

a1225  (c1200)    Vices & Virtues (1888) 95   He bitt ðat pais bie aiðer on licame and on saule, and þat pies hali mihte sibsumnesse bie rixende on ȝeu baðe.
c1225  (?c1200)    Hali Meiðhad (Bodl.) (1940) 601 (MED)   Gleadschipe i þe hali gast & pes i þi breoste of onde & of wreadðe.
c1300   St. Francis (Laud) 472 in C. Horstmann Early S.-Eng. Legendary (1887) 67 (MED)   With þis word he gan deiȝe and is soule al in pes To þe Ioye of heouene wende.
c1384   Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) (Douce 369(2)) (1850) Philipp. iv. 7   The pees of God, that passith al witt, kepe ȝoure hertis.
c1450  (▸1410)    J. Walton tr. Boethius De Consol. Philos. (Linc. Cathedral 103) 20 (MED)   Worldly wynd wiþ meschief and distresse Haþ hym byraft al out of merthe and pesse.
?1504   W. Atkinson tr. Thomas à Kempis Ful Treat. Imytacyon Cryste (Pynson) iii. xxxiii. 102   Lete not þi pes be in þe mouþes of men.
1549   Bk. Common Prayer (STC 16267) Celebr. Holye Communion f. xciiiv   Graunt..to thy faithfull people pardon and peace.
?a1603   E. Grymeston Miscelanea (1604) iii. sig. B4   While I had rest in my substance, and peace in my riches.
1671   J. Milton Samson Agonistes 1334   Off. Regard thy self... Sam. My self? my conscience and internal peace.
1710   M. Chudleigh Ess. Several Subj. 59   [He] dies as he liv'd, consistent with himself, full of Serenity and Peace.
1769   W. Draper in ‘Junius’ Stat Nominis Umbra (1772) I. vi. 46   I could, by malicious interrogation, disturb the peace of the most virtuous man in the kingdom.
a1817   J. Austen Lady Susan xiv, in Wks. (1954) VI. 263   I entreat you..to quiet your mind, & no longer harbour a suspicion which cannot be more injurious to your own peace than to our Understandings.
1851   F. W. Robertson Serm. 3rd Ser. xi. 138   Peace..is the opposite of passion, and of labour, toil and effort. Peace is that state in which there are no desires madly demanding an impossible gratification.
1902   W. James Varieties Relig. Experience iii   All the solemnity that makes religious peace so different from merely animal joys.
1948   Z. N. Hurston Seraph on Suwanee xiv. 136   The weak but handsome face was..inhabited at last by a peace and a calm.
1994   Kindred Spirit Autumn 4/2   His impressive weightlifting feats have been performed to show the power of inner peace latent within us all.

a1225—1994(Hide quotations)


 b. With of and the name of the organ, faculty, etc., in which such peace is considered to reside; now esp. in peace of mind.

1340   Ayenbite (1866) 92 (MED)   Zueche guodes yefþ god to man ine þise wordle huanne he yefþ pays of herte.
?a1425   tr. Catherine of Siena Orcherd of Syon (Harl.) (1966) 198 (MED)   A meke soule..schulde deeme hersilf vnworþi for to haue sich reste and pees of soule.
a1450  (a1396)    W. Hilton Eight Chapters on Perfection 16   Whanne a man..slepiþ in pees of conscience and restiþ with-oute strogelynge of veyn þouȝtis.
1583   B. Melbancke Philotimus (new ed.) sig. Bb4v   Let Pluto send thee peace of mind, and stay thy moodie manacings, and as in yeares and welth thou wantst of me, so yeeld thy nauale forces.
1623   J. Webster Dutchesse of Malfy iv. ii. sig. K4   What would I doe, were this to do againe? I would not change my peace of conscience For all the wealth of Europe.
1737   A. Pope Epist. of Horace ii. ii. 6   He stuck to Poverty with Peace of Mind.
1792   M. Wollstonecraft Vindic. Rights Woman ii   A rough inelegant husband may shock her taste without destroying her peace of mind.
1854   E. C. Gaskell North & South II. xxv   ‘If it succeeded—’ ‘I should be a rich man, and my peace of conscience would be gone!’
1898   F. Montgomery Tony i. 21   She could not read her novel with any peace of mind; and she found her attention wandering from it.
1913   D. H. Lawrence Sons & Lovers iv. 68   The warmth, the security and peace of soul, the utter comfort from the touch of the other.
2002   E. McLaughlin & N. Kraus Nanny Diaries x. 266   It gives me peace of mind knowing I'm able to be virtually right there with my son.

1340—2002(Hide quotations)


 a. Freedom from external disturbance, interference, or perturbation, esp. as a condition of an individual. Frequently in in peace. Also (more emphatically) peace and quiet (also peace and quietness).

c1230  (?a1200)    Ancrene Riwle (Corpus Cambr.) (1962) 89   Ierusalem..bitacneþ ancre hus. for þrinne ne þearf ha seon bute peis [?c1225 Cleo. grið] ane.
c1300   St. Dunstan (Laud) 70 in C. Horstmann Early S.-Eng. Legendary (1887) 21   Seint Dunston cam hom a-ȝen:..And hadde his Abbeye al in pays.
a1350  (▸1307)    in R. H. Robbins Hist. Poems 14th & 15th Cent. (1959) 21   Þenne myhte vch mon Boþ riden & gon In pes wiþ-oute vyhte.
c1384   Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) (Douce 369(2)) (1850) Luke xi. 21   Whanne a strong armed man kepith his hows, alle thingis that he weldith ben in pees.
a1387   J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden Polychron. (St. John's Cambr.) (1869) II. 181 (MED)   Whan þe lymes beeþ wel arayed, [etc.]`.þan haþ þe man good þees [read pees] and quiete and is in good heele and reste.
?a1425  (?a1350)    T. Castleford Chron. Lear 659 in G. Haselbach & G. Hartmann Festschrift (1957) 231 (MED)   So Leir recouert hys dignite And regnyd in pese yieres thre.
1480   W. Caxton Chron. Eng. clxxiii. 156   The poure comons were in pees and in rest.
1532   T. More Confut. Tyndales Answere Pref. sig. Dd iii.v   To breke the peace and quiete of his cuntre.
1576   A. Fleming tr. C. Matius in Panoplie Epist. 115   The residue of my lyfe will I lead in Rhodes, where I may possesse peace and quietnes.
1581   W. Lambarde Eirenarcha i. ii. 6   Sometymes..the worde Peace is taken for Protection, or defence: as where M. Bracton calleth the Writtes of Protection, Breuia de pace.
1669   J. Fletcher Island Princess iv. v   That I should give this vantage to mine enemie, The enemie to my peace; forsake my faith?
1730   Earl of Oxford in Swift's Lett. (1768) IV. 25   Enjoying the fruit of his victory, peace and quietness.
a1771   T. Gray Child in Wks. (1884) I. 127   Let him sleep in peace.
a1817   J. Austen Persuasion (1818) IV. ix. 193   The baronet..is not unlikely to marry again; he is quite fool enough. If he does, however, they will leave me in peace .  View more context for this quotation
1859   J. W. Carlyle Lett. III. 6   I shall breakfast here in peace, and quietness.
1864   Ld. Tennyson Enoch Arden in Enoch Arden, etc. 9   And pass his days in peace among his own.
1865   W. F. Hook Lives Archbps. III. 301   It often happens that a man, turbulent in his youth, will make great sacrifices to procure peace and quiet in his old age.
1907   A. Bierce in Cosmopolitan Dec. 188/2   In the middle of the night something—some malign power bent upon the wrecking of my peace forever—caused me to open my eyes and sit up.
1933   H. G. Wells Shape of Things to Come ii. 153   The man who wanted to be left alone in peace..was pressed to pay his tribute to the gang.
1993   Teleworker Nov. 27/2   He thrives on peace and quiet and finds work hellish when his live-in girlfriend takes a day off.

c1230—1993(Hide quotations)


 b. In various expressions of well-wishing or salutation, as peace be with you, etc. (Originally in and derived from biblical use.)

a1325  (c1280)    Southern Passion (Pepys 2344) (1927) 2090   Ihesus stod and sede,‘Pays beo myd ȝou; ich hit am.’
c1384   Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) (Douce 369(2)) (1850) Luke x. 5   In to what euere hous ȝe schulen entre, first seye ȝe, ‘Pees to this hous.’
a1400  (c1300)    Northern Homily: Mary Magdalene (Coll. Phys.) in Middle Eng. Dict. at Pes   ‘Ga,’ he said, ‘womman, in pes.’
a1456  (a1402)    J. Trevisa tr. Gospel of Nicodemus (BL Add.) f. 114 (MED)   Peos be to yowe of oure lorde Ihesus cryst.
c1480  (a1400)    St. Peter 250 in W. M. Metcalfe Legends Saints Sc. Dial. (1896) I. 14   Pece be till ȝow, myn breþer dere.
1535   Bible (Coverdale) Bel & Dragon G   Peace be multiplied with you.
1557   Earl of Surrey et al. Songes & Sonettes sig. Y.i   Peace to thy bones, and glory immortall Be to thy name, and to her excellence.
1611   Bible (King James) 1 Chron. xii. 18   Peace, peace, be unto thee, and peace be to thine helpers.  View more context for this quotation
a1616   W. Shakespeare Henry VI, Pt. 2 (1623) iii. iii. 26   Peace to his soule, if Gods good pleasure be.  View more context for this quotation
1678   J. Bunyan Pilgrim's Progress (ed. 2) 144   Peace be with you, dearly beloved, and, peace be to your helpers.
1746   T. Smollett Reproof 200   Peace to that gentle soul that could deny His invocated voice to fill the cry.
1791   A. Radcliffe Romance of Forest I. vii. 264   Farewell! and peace attend you.
1816   W. Scott Antiquary II. viii. 226   Ah! rare Ben Jonson! long peace to thy ashes!
1850   Ld. Tennyson Princess (ed. 3) iv. 77   Peace be with her! She is dead.
1864   A. Trollope Can you forgive Her? I. vii. 52   ‘Peace be to his manes!’ she said at last, as she carefully folded up a huge black crape mantilla.
1915   N. Munro in B. D. Osborne & R. Armstrong Erchie & Jimmy Swan (1993) i. xlvii. 208   Whit would my mither—peace be wi' her!—think o' me gaun twice to a picture-hoose, and sendin' oot your washin' to a la'ndry!
1993   Jackson Hole (Wyoming) Daily 25 Mar. 36/1   ‘Peace be upon you,’ said Abouhalima's father before slamming the door.

a1325—1993(Hide quotations)


 5. Absence of noise, movement, or activity; stillness, quiet.Earliest in †to have one's peace : to be silent (obsolete). See also Phrases 1.

a1275   St. Margaret (Trin. Cambr.) l. 213 in A. S. M. Clark Seint Maregrete & Body & Soul (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Michigan) (1972) 75   Haue þi pais [c1330 Auch. be stille], þou foule þing.
a1300   in N. Davis Non-Cycle Plays & Fragm. (1970) 115 (MED)   Þet [read Ȝet] tes lordes pays ich grede; Nu sittet stille, bi mine rede!
c1330  (?a1300)    Kyng Alisaunder (Auch.) (1952) 20 (MED)   He hiȝt hem eiȝte and gret noblais; Þai schuld it hele and ben in pais.
c1400  (c1378)    W. Langland Piers Plowman (Laud 581) (1869) B. xix. 149   The iewes preyed hem pees [c1400 C text of pees].
?a1425  (c1400)    Mandeville's Trav. (Titus C.xvi) (1919) 181   The Grauely see..is neuer still ne in pes.
a1450  (?a1300)    Richard Coer de Lyon (Caius) (1810) 1341   Beth in pes, lystenes my tale!
?1518   Cocke Lorelles Bote sig. C.ii   They banysshed prayer peas and sadnes And toke with them myrthe sporte and gladnes.
1620   J. Melton Astrologaster 68   In the peace of mid~night.
1680   J. Dryden tr. Ovid in J. Dryden et al. tr. Epist. 218   Stay but a little, till the Tempest cease; And the loud winds are lull'd into a peace.
1750   W. Shenstone Rural Elegance 5   Oh! peace to yonder clam'rous horn!
1846   J. Ruskin Mod. Painters II. 47   Not like the dead and cold peace of undisturbed stones and solitary mountains.
1892   R. L. Stevenson & L. Osbourne Wrecker viii. 131   Precipitous shores, spired mountain-tops, the deep shade of hanging forests, the unresting surf upon the reef, and the unending peace of the lagoon.
1911   J. Muir My First Summer in Sierra 137   Sauntered up the meadow about sundown, out of sight of camp and sheep and all human mark, into the deep peace of the solemn old woods.
1988   Independent 9 Sept. 3   The early morning sound of Tornado F3 fighters is about to disturb the rural peace of north Yorkshire.

a1275—1988(Hide quotations)


 a. Freedom from, absence of, or cessation of war or hostilities; the condition or state of a nation or community in which it is not at war with another; peacetime.

c1300  (?a1200)    Laȝamon Brut (Otho) 3460   Neuere onleode ne sohte his riche, ac þis lond was in paise.
c1325  (c1300)    Chron. Robert of Gloucester (Calig.) 1322 (MED)   Þe prinse..nis to preisi noȝt Þat in time of worre as a lomb is boþe mek and milde And in time of pes as leon boþe cruel and wilde.
a1400  (?a1350)    Seege Troye (Egerton) (1927) 363 (MED)   Better is pes for ay and oo Þan monslauȝter in werre and woo.
1484   W. Caxton tr. Subtyl Historyes & Fables Esope ii. viii   After grete werre cometh good pees.
1489  (a1380)    J. Barbour Bruce (Adv.) i. 80   At that tyme wes pes and rest Betwyx Scotland and Ingland bath.
1535   Bible (Coverdale) Ecclus. xlvii. 16   Because of his peace he was beloued.
1577   B. Googe tr. C. Heresbach Foure Bks. Husbandry i. f. 6v   Being hardened with labour in peace, they might the better be able to abyde the trauayle of warres.
1619   F. Beaumont & J. Fletcher King & No King i. sig. B1v   Trust mee Tigranes, shee can doe as much In peace, as I in Warre; sheele conquer too.
1655   H. L'Estrange Reign King Charles 78   The unbilleting of Souldiers and nulling of Martiall Law in times of peace.
1726   J. Swift Gulliver I. ii. vi. 116   He was amazed to hear me talk of a mercenary standing Army in the midst of Peace, and among a Free People.
a1771   T. Gray Ess. I in W. Mason Mem. Life & Writings (1775) 195   Fix, and improve the polish'd arts of peace.
1804   Duke of Wellington Dispatches (1837) III. 584   Peace is the fairest fruit of victory.
1874   J. R. Green Short Hist. Eng. People ix. §10. 713   In vain..Walpole battled..against the cry for war... He stood alone in his desire for peace.
1919   Outing Mar. 313/1   The survivors were brought to such extremity by smallpox and starvation that they had to sue for peace on any terms.
1940   J. F. Kennedy Why Eng. Slept vii. 171   He felt that if some compromises were made so that the dictators would not be forced to go to war to save their popularity at home, Europe might have peace.
1987   USA Today 21 Oct. 6/7   Neutrality is essential if we are to..play a constructive role in achieving peace.

c1300—1987(Hide quotations)


 b. As a count noun: an agreement, ratification, or treaty of peace between two nations, communities, etc., who were previously at war. Frequently with of and the name of the place at which the treaty was ratified. Also: an interval or period of peace (now rare).Formerly also: †(an agreement effecting) a truce or temporary cessation of hostilities (obsolete).

c1325  (c1300)    Chron. Robert of Gloucester (Calig.) 11458   Þer was þe erl of ferers ibrouȝt in hard cas,Vor he hadde after þe pais robberie iwroȝt.
a1393   J. Gower Confessio Amantis (Fairf.) i. 1103 (MED)   Thei feignen forto make a pes, And under that..Thei schopen the destruccioun Bothe of the kyng and of the toun.
c1425  (c1400)    Laud Troy-bk. 17536   He..bad hem mak Be-twene hem of Greece..A fynal pes.
1488  (c1478)    Hary Actis & Deidis Schir William Wallace (Adv.) (1968–9) iii. l. 333   With thair consent Wallace this pes has tayn,..till x moneth war gayn.
a1500  (▸1422)    J. Yonge tr. Secreta Secret. (Rawl.) (1898) 164 (MED)   The febilnes of the enemy nys not a pees, but a truse for the tyme.
1560   J. Daus tr. J. Sleidane Commentaries f. cccxliiijv   Thambassadours of England and Fraunce..at the last conclude a peace.
1592   T. Kyd Spanish Trag. i. sig. A4v   But tell me now, hast thou confirmd a peace?
1653   H. Cogan tr. F. M. Pinto Voy. & Adventures xiii. 42   He would not..break the peace, which his ancestors had made with the Christians of Malaca.
1678   A. Marvell Acct. Growth Popery (new ed.) 12   The Infractors and Aggressors of the Peace of Aix la Chapelle.
1713   J. Swift Jrnl. to Stella 10 Mar. (1948) II. 636   They are not sure the Peace will be signed next Week.
1755   N. Magens Ess. Insurances I. 468   The Peace of Breslau of 1742, and that of Dresden 1745, confirmative of the precedent one.
1802   T. Jefferson Let. 18 Apr. in Writings (1984) 1106   In that case France will have held possession of New Orleans during the interval of a peace, long or short, at the end of which it will be wrested from her.
1852   J. M. Ludlow Master Engineers 132   A truce is often the foreshadow of a peace.
1877   T. H. Dyer Mod. Europe xl   The advisers of the Peace of Utrecht.
1922   Encycl. Brit. XXX. 509/1   Under the Peace of Versailles a new form of colonial possession came into being.
1970   Oxf. Classical Dict. (ed. 2) 644/2   After the peace of 387 the Spartans obliged the Mantineans to dismantle their walls and live in villages.
1991   Newsweek 25 Nov. 33/3   He meant to wage war until the United States became weary enough to sue for a peace that would leave Japan all it had seized in Asia.

c1325—1991(Hide quotations)


 c. The personification of peace (sense 6a); the goddess of peace.

c1390   Castle of Love (Vernon) (1967) 304 (MED)   Þe furste douȝter hette Merci..Pees hette þe feorþe.
a1500  (▸1445)    J. Lydgate Q. Margaret's Entry into London 36 in Mod. Lang. Rev. (1912) 7 227 (MED)   Justice and Pees, these Sustres schal prouide Twixt Reawmes tweyn stedfast loue to sette.
1600   B. Jonson Every Man out of his Humor Epil. sig. Riv   Let..The Throat of Warre be stopt.., And Turtle-footed Peace daunce fairie Rings About her Court.  View more context for this quotation
a1674   J. Milton To Cromwell in Lett. State (1694) p. xlv   Yet much remains To Conquer still; Peace hath her Victories No less than those of War.
1741   W. Shenstone Judgm. Hercules 402   Peace rears her olive for industrious brows.
1816   D. P. Campbell Poems (new ed.) 113   Then peace her olive shall display, And patriot blood no more shall flow.
1853   Harper's Mag. Feb. 318/2   He wished to have the statue of Peace surmount the lofty summit of the pillar.
a1914   M. J. Cawein Cup of Comus (1915) 66   There above the conflict, orbed in rays, Is drawn the face Of Peace.
2000   Daily Tel. 9 Nov. 12/3   Adrian Jones's sculpture of Peace descending on the Quadriga of War, erected in 1912.

c1390—2000(Hide quotations)


 d.   peace with honour   n. peace maintained or secured without loss of national pride; also in extended use.

[a1616   W. Shakespeare Coriolanus (1623) iii. ii. 50   That it [sc. your policy] shall hold Companionship in Peace With Honour, as in Warre.  View more context for this quotation
a1616   W. Shakespeare Coriolanus (1623) v. vi. 79   We haue made peace With no lesse Honor to the Antiates Then shame to th'Romaines.  View more context for this quotation]
1626   T. Middleton Trivmphs Health & Prosperity sig. B2v   It is a yeare that crownes the life of man, Brings him to Peace with Honor.
1650   A. Weldon Court & Char. King James 185   [James I] had rather spend 100,000 li. on Embassies to keep or procure peace with dishonor, then 10,000 l. on an army that would have forced peace with honour.
1855   Times 17 May 10/5   The motto of this country will be—as I am convinced it ought to be—‘Peace with honour, or war with victory.’
1878   Times 17 July 5/5   Lord Beaconsfield said,..Lord Salisbury and myself have brought you back peace (applause), but a peace, I hope, with honour (applause) which may satisfy our Sovereign (applause), and tend to the welfare of the country.
1909   H. A. Vachell Paladin 112   Peace with honour..has become slightly shop-worn.
1990   A. A. Burn Penguin Hist. Greece (BNC) 127   It [sc. an eclipse] may have suggested to two kings, already finding the war unprofitable, an occasion for peace with honour.

1626—1990(Hide quotations)


 e.   peace at any price   n. peace (to be) negotiated regardless of the terms demanded.  peace-at-any-pricer n. rare a person who advocates a policy of seeking peace at any price.

[1645   G. Digby Let. 27 Aug. in Cal. State Papers: Domest. (1891) DX. 87   Demonstrations that they will purchase their own, and..the kingdom's quiet, at any price to the King, to the Church, and to the faithfulest of his party.]
1774   D. Graham Impartial Hist. Rebellion (ed. 3) xvi. 175   Her [sc. France's] trade was stopt by sea and land, Bold Britain did the seas command: She sued for peace at any price.
1844   Britannia 14 Sept. 585/2   Now, if Louis Philippe contemplated peace at any price, why this warlike array?
1855   Times 7 June 6/5   This is not the first offence of the kind of which these peace-at-any-price men have been guilty.
1896   Westm. Gaz. 10 Jan. 2/2   Men who are neither faddists in general nor peace-at-any-pricers in particular.
1938   Foreign Service Feb. 9/2   This country suffers from a lot of half-baked theorists, impractical idealists, and peace-at-any-price advocates on the loose.
1995   N.Y. Times Bk. Rev. 26 Feb. 7/2   Bosnian refusal to capitulate infuriated the command of the United Nations Protection Force, which wanted peace at any price.

1774—1995(Hide quotations)


7. With of or a possessive. A state or relation of concord and amity with a person in authority, as a monarch, lord, etc.; the good will, indulgence, or approval of such a person. Obsolete.

a1350  (▸1307)    in R. H. Robbins Hist. Poems 14th & 15th Cent. (1959) 15   Bysshopes ant barouns come to þe kinges pes, ase men þat weren fals, fykel, ant les.
c1350   Psalter (BL Add. 17376) in K. D. Bülbring Earliest Compl. Eng. Prose Psalter (1891) xl. 10 (MED)   For þis man was of myn pes [L. homo pacis meae], in whom ich hoped.
a1450   Generides (Pierpont Morgan) (1865) 3219 (MED)   I beseche you g[ra]unt nov youre pees Vnto oure felow [sc. Generides].
a1500   Eng. Conquest Ireland (Rawl.) (1896) 87 (MED)   Aftyr al the trauail that the kynge hadde..come the Sonnes to the faderis Pees and madyn asseth, falsly.
1523   Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles I. clxxx. 215   The prouost of the marchantes of Parys hadde gette hym his peace of the duke.
1570   in J. Cranstoun Satirical Poems Reformation (1891) I. xxiii. 28   Thow knawis thy self gif he was diligent To get thy peax, and slaik the of that weir.
1598   W. Shakespeare Henry IV, Pt. 1 iv. iii. 64   He came but to be Duke of Lancaster, To sue his liuery, and beg his peace With teares of innocencie, and tearmes of zeale.  View more context for this quotation
1667   J. Milton Paradise Lost x. 913   [She] at his feet Fell humble, and imbracing them, besaught His peace, and thus proceeded in her plaint.  View more context for this quotation

a1350—1667(Hide quotations)


 8. A person who embodies or fosters peace, harmony, concord, etc.In later use chiefly used of Christ, frequently with allusion to Ephesians 2:14.; cf. also Prince of Peace at prince n. 4b.

c1380   G. Chaucer Second Nun's Tale 44   With inne the cloistre blisful of thy sydis Took mannes shap the eternal loue and pees That of the tryne compas lord and gyde is.
c1384   Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) (Douce 369(2)) (1850) Eph. ii. 14   He is oure pees, that made both oon.
a1425  (c1385)    G. Chaucer Troilus & Criseyde (1987) iii. 1309   Welcome, my knyght, my pees, my suffisance!
a1450  (c1412)    T. Hoccleve De Regimine Principum (Harl. 4866) (1897) 5386   Crist þus seid hir vnto, ‘I am pees verray’.
▸ ?a1513   W. Dunbar Poems (1998) I. 168   Our princes [i.e. princess] of honour,..Our peax, our play, our plane felicite.
1560   Bible (Geneva) Micah v. 5   And he shalbe our peace.
1662   K. Evans & S. Chevers Short Relation Cruel Sufferings 74   Our God, who is our life, our peace, our stay and strength.
1851   J. Hamilton Royal Preacher (1852) xx. 333   Our safety is all in the Saviour whom we trust. He is our peace.
1980   Order for Holy Communion, Rite A in Alternative Service Bk. 128   The president says either of the following..words... Christ is our peace. He has reconciled us to God in one body by the cross.

c1380—1980(Hide quotations)


 9. Chiefly British. the king's peace (also the queen's peace and variants): the protection guaranteed by the monarch to certain people, as those employed on royal business, travelling on the highway, etc. See also sense 1b   and pax ecclesiae n.   Now historical.

1428   in J. Raine Vol. Eng. Misc. N. Counties Eng. (1890) 3   He suld bere ye kynges pease to John Holgate mersshall.
1612   J. Davies Discouerie Causes Ireland 111   The Irish which were not in the Kings peace, are called Enemies.
1769   W. Blackstone Comm. Laws Eng. IV. xiv. 198   To kill an alien, a Jew, or an outlaw, who are all under the king's peace or protection, is as much murder as to kill the most regular born English~man.
1890   F. Pollock Oxf. Lect. 88   By the end of the thirteenth century..the king's peace had fully grown from an occasional privilege into a common right.
1899   Dict. National Biogr. at Warenne, John de   The steward of Scotland..counselled delay and offered to bring back the insurgents to the king's peace.
1975   Renaissance Q. 28 45   Extending the definition of the King's Peace so that many offenses..traditionally regarded as torts..were made into felonies (offenses in which the king was concerned).

1428—1975(Hide quotations)


 10. Christian Church. Chiefly with the. Originally: the kiss of peace; = pax n.1 2. In later use also: an action symbolizing or taking the place of the kiss of peace, as a light embrace, a handshake, or a bow.

1518   in Medieval Eng. Theatre (1995) 17 59   And an Antemp of Iohn and of our Lady withe the pees at aftre Euynsong.
1565   J. Jewel Replie Hardinges Answeare iii. 153   The Peace geuen to the Bishop, was not a little Table of Siluer, or somewhat els, as hath beene vsed in the Churche of Rome: but a very Cosse in deede.
1706   tr. L. E. Du Pin New Eccl. Hist. 16th Cent. II. iv. xx. 333   There were no Censings, nor any Peace given at the Mass.
1837   K. H. Digby Mores Catholici VIII. viii. xiii. 469   Angelo Catto announced to him on giving the peace at mass.
1935   D. H. Hislop Our Heritage in Public Worship xi. 243   Here, either before or after the Peace, in many rites is placed the Creed.
1976   Church Times 8 Oct. 9/2   Staid churchwardens embraced others in the congregation during the giving of the Peace with a warmth and friendliness that they would have found difficult to express in a parish church.
2003   Presbyterian Rec. (Nexis) June 39   Presbyterians, for whom a friendly nod is as demonstrative an exchange of the peace as they want or need, have been vindicated.

1518—2003(Hide quotations)

 II. Technical uses.

 11. More fully Peace rose. With capital initial. A vigorous variety of hybrid tea rose bearing large yellow flowers shaded with pink; the flower of this plant.

1944   R. Pyle Let. in A. Ridge For Love of Rose (1965) xii. 210   We are persuaded that this greatest new rose of our time should be named for the world's greatest desire: Peace.
1945   Los Angeles Times 30 Apr. i. 11/1   Today's main event [at the Pacific Rose Society show] was the official christening of the newly developed Peace rose.
1965   L. Meynell Double Fault ii. v. 174   A heaped profusion of Peace roses looked superb in a large silver bowl.
1978   B. Arnold Singer at Wedding Prol. 6   One rose from the bush of Peace in the centre of the small lawn had gone over, and its creamy, tinted petals had tumbled down in profusion on the dry earth.
2003   Chicago Tribune (Nexis) 19 Oct. (Sunday Mag.) 22   It is the product of a Samling seedling (a pink blend) crossed with the Peace rose (yellow with a pink edge).

1944—2003(Hide quotations)



In several of the main senses.

 P1. to hold (also †have, keep) one's peace : to remain quiet or silent; to keep silence; to refrain from comment or criticism.

a1275   St. Margaret (Trin. Cambr.) l. 213 in A. S. M. Clark Seint Maregrete & Body & Soul (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Michigan) (1972) 75   Haue þi pais [c1330 Auch. be stille], þou foule þing.
a1350   in G. L. Brook Harley Lyrics (1968) 43 (MED)   Holdeþ nou or pees.
a1382   Prefatory Epist. St. Jerome in Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) (Bodl. 959) (1959) vi. 4   I holde my pees of gramaryens & rethorykez, philosophers, geometrers, [etc.].
1483  (▸1413)    tr. G. Deguileville Pilgrimage of Soul (Caxton) (1859) ii. lxv. 59   I..held my pees, and wold no more seye.
1490   W. Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) vii. 157   He had grete luste to speke, for yf he had keped his peas [etc.].
1549   Bk. Common Prayer (STC 16267) Matrimonie f. xiii*v   Let him now speake, or els hereafter foreuer hold his peace.
1587   Sir P. Sidney & A. Golding tr. P. de Mornay Trewnesse Christian Relig. xxix. 542   At this text R. Eliezer was blankt and held his peace.
1620   tr. G. Boccaccio Decameron I. v. viii. f. 201   So soone as Madam Lauretta held her peace, Madam Philomena (by the Queenes command) began, and saide.
1672   Duke of Buckingham Rehearsal iii. 27   Nay, pr'ythee hold thy peace.
1717   M. Prior Alma iii. 186   Richard, keep thy head, And hold thy peace.
1796   Grose's Classical Dict. Vulgar Tongue (ed. 3)    Stow you, be silent, or hold your peace.
1818   Cobbett's Weekly Polit. Reg. 33 346   If we hold our tongues upon this subject, let us, for decency's sake, keep our peace as to the dependence of Canning.
1890   W. C. Russell Ocean Trag. III. xxvi. 16   I held my peace on this new..craze.
1928   D. H. Lawrence Lady Chatterley's Lover xv. 265   But since I can't, an' nobody can, I'd better hold my peace, an' try an' live my own life.
1970   P. Berton National Dream vii. i. 264   The Tory chieftain had kept his peace while the Liberal press continued to announce his imminent retirement.
2003   Africa News (Nexis) 15 Oct.   The union ought to hold its peace about the payment period now. For it signed the pact.

a1275—2003(Hide quotations)

 P2.   to make peace   phr.

 a. See sense 1a.


 b. to make one's peace : to effect a reconciliation for oneself (esp. with another person). Formerly also †to make (another person's) peace .In quot. a1425: †to admit a person to friendly relations with oneself (obsolete).

a1350   in G. L. Brook Harley Lyrics (1968) 69   Iesu Crist, þou be mi bote, so boun icham to make my péés.
c1350  (a1333)    William of Shoreham Poems (1902) 39 (MED)   Þos mote Make þy pes wyþ alle þre Sorwe, schryfte, and edbote.
a1425  (?a1400)    G. Chaucer Romaunt Rose (Hunterian) 2552   This bargeyn eende may never take, But if that she [sc. his beloved] thi pees will make.
c1450  (?a1400)    Wars Alexander (Ashm.) 3779   Dame Calistride..comes with hire ladis; Mas hire pes with oure prince.
c1515   Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) xxi. 62   By his meanes my peace was made with the kynge.
a1616   W. Shakespeare Twelfth Night (1623) iii. iv. 262   I will make your peace with him, if I can.  View more context for this quotation
1642   T. Fuller Holy State ii. xix. 120   Those who have made their peace with God.
1690   J. Locke Ess. Humane Understanding ii. xxvii. 159   Many whilst they break the Law, entertain Thoughts of future reconciliation, and making their Peace for such Breaches.
1749   H. Fielding Tom Jones III. viii. xiv. 289   My false Friend..was likewise considered as a Prisoner, tho' he was better treated, as being to make his Peace at my Expence.  View more context for this quotation
1788   T. Jefferson Writings (1859) II. 552   Symptoms which render it suspicious that the two empires may make their peace with the Turks.
1847   A. Brontë Agnes Grey xii. 187   Don't depend upon me for making your peace with Mr Murray, for I never see him—to speak to.
1885   R. F. Burton tr. Arabian Nights' Entertainm. IV. cclxxxv. 129   Now when her husband had made his peace with the young lady, he lay with her that night.
1916   E. R. Burroughs Beasts of Tarzan x. 162   Speak quick before I kill you! Make your peace with God!
1990   S. Johnson Flying Lessons xxxiv. 255   She died before they could make their peace. He went to his grave a broken man.

a1350—1990(Hide quotations)


 c. To conclude a treaty at the conclusion of a war; to effect a reconciliation between people or parties; to be or become reconciled. Also: to enter into friendly relations with a person or party.

a1393   J. Gower Confessio Amantis (Fairf.) Prol. 256 (MED)   I not how that thei scholde amende The woful world..To make pes betwen the kynges.
?a1430   T. Hoccleve Mother of God l. 78 in Minor Poems (1970) i. 54   By thee, lady, y-makid is the pees Betwixt Angels and men.
a1475   Sidrak & Bokkus (Lansd.) (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Washington) (1965) 5805   And lightlier is it forto wynne Forȝeuenesse of God for synne, Þan of God and of men boþe; If þei with þee here ben wroþe, Þe latter may he pees make.
1535   Bible (Coverdale) Josh. x. A   They of Gibeon had made peace with Israel.
1564   A. Golding tr. Justinus Hist. Trogus Pompeius xliii. f. 164   At her syght he was so astraught, that..he made peace with ye Massiliens.
1590   E. Spenser Faerie Queene ii. iii. sig. O8   So happy peace they made and faire accord.
1611   Bible (King James) Isa. xxvii. 5   He shall make peace with me.  View more context for this quotation
1651   T. Hobbes Leviathan iii. xl. 253   The Supreme Power of making War and Peace, was in the Priest.
1654   O. Cromwell Speech 4 Sept. in Writings & Speeches (1945) (modernized text) III. 442   It is a maxim not to be despised, though peace be made, yet it is interest that keeps peace.
1697   J. Dryden tr. Virgil Æneis xi, in tr. Virgil Wks. 551   Make peace, ye Latians, and avoid with Care Th' impending Dangers of a fatal War.
1754   B. Franklin Writings (1987) 380   That the President General with the Advice of the Grand Council, hold or Direct all Indian Treaties..And make Peace or Declare War with the Indian Nations.
1765   W. Blackstone Comm. Laws Eng. I. vii. 257   The king has also the sole prerogative of making war and peace.
1818   M. W. Shelley Frankenstein II. ix. 145   If any being felt emotions of benevolence towards me, I should return them an hundred and an hundred fold; for that one creature's sake, I would make peace with the whole kind!
1885   R. F. Burton tr. Arabian Nights' Entertainm. I. x. 95   The ladies laughed consumedly at the squabble; and, making peace between the Kalandars and the Porter, seated the new guests before meat and they ate.
1920   W. S. Churchill Let. 24 Mar. in World Crisis (1929) IV. xvii. 378   I should be prepared to make peace with Soviet Russia on the best terms available to appease the general situation.
1989   G. Early Tuxedo Junction iv. xiv. 237   The father's way of making peace with being a black man in a world of white sensibilities.
1991   M. Tully No Full Stops in India (1992) i. 18   It is quite possible that Chandre would have..returned to his village to make peace with his mother had he not met [etc.].
2003   Nation (N.Y.) 5 May 12/2   What the refuseniks have done..does not contribute to telling us how the Israelis and Palestinians can make peace.

a1393—2003(Hide quotations)


d. To enforce silence. Obsolete.

?a1425  (c1400)    Mandeville's Trav. (Titus C.xvi) (1919) 154 (MED)   Þei seyn to certeyn Officeres..‘Maketh pees.’
a1470   T. Malory Morte Darthur (Winch. Coll.) 293   Anone as the kynge saw hym, there was made peas and rome.

?a1425—a1470(Hide quotations)


 P3. at peace: in a state of concord or friendliness; not at war or at variance (with a country, a person, oneself, etc.); in a state of quietness or serenity. at a person's peace : in a state of friendliness with a person (cf. Phrases 8) (obsolete).

a1400  (a1325)    Cursor Mundi (Trin. Cambr.) 4074 (MED)   Fro þis tyme forþ..Wiþ ioseph were þei neuer at pees [a1400 Vesp. saght].
?a1400  (a1338)    R. Mannyng Chron. (Petyt) ii. 88 (MED)   Þei obliged þam to gyue Fourti þousand pound at his pes to lyue.
a1450   Castle Perseverance (1969) l. 3538   Lete us stonde at on acord, At pes wythowtyn ende.
1488  (c1478)    Hary Actis & Deidis Schir William Wallace (Adv.) (1968–9) iii. l. 279   Thai chargyt him to mak Wallace at pes.
1560   T. Becon Common-pl. Holy Script. in Wks. iii. 68   To set at peace by hym through the bloude of hys crosse both thinges in heauen and thinges in earth.
1568   Bible (Bishops') Job xxii. 21   Reconcile thee vnto God, and be at peace.
a1629   W. Hinde Faithfull Remonstr. (1641) lii. 173   Being so at peace with God, we have peace with our selves.
1661   R. Baillie Lett. & Jrnls. (1842) III. 448   For our private matters in the Colledge, this twelvemoneth we have been at peace.
1722   D. Defoe Jrnl. Plague Year 21   The Inns-of-Court were all shut up... Every Body was at peace; there was no Occasion for Lawyers.
1749   J. Cleland Mem. Woman of Pleasure II. 46   In short, this dev'lish thing, with its impetuous girds and itching fires, led me such a life, that I could neither, night or day, be at peace with it or myself.
1853   A. J. Morris Business i. 7   Those who are never at peace but when they are at war.
1860   J. W. Warter Sea-board & Down II. 115   He is at peace with this world and the next!
1910   Encycl. Brit. I. 465/1   The fitting out, arming or equipping..of any vessel, which it has reasonable ground to believe is intended to cruise or to carry on war against a power with which it is at peace.
1933   J. Bridie Sleeping Clergyman i. iii   Sit at peace and enjoy the sunshine.
1994   N.Y. Times 20 Feb. i. 36/3   Now Washington and Moscow are at peace, and the supercollider is just one of the scientific enterprises likely to fall victim to the end of the cold war.
2001   Independent 15 May ii. 2   Quiet people..drifting off to friends' homes to ‘chill out’ or just strolling through the dawn at peace with themselves and the world.

a1400—2001(Hide quotations)


 P4. In collocation with plenty.

c1400  (?a1387)    W. Langland Piers Plowman (Huntington HM 137) (1873) C. xviii. 93 (MED)   Ther sholde be plente and pees perpetuel for euere.
?1435  (▸1432)    J. Lydgate Minor Poems (1934) ii. 633   To regne in pees, plente, and plesaunce.
a1500  (a1460)    Towneley Plays (1897–1973) 113 (MED)   With peasse and plente..Good luf and charyte Blendyd amanges vs.
a1542   T. Wyatt Coll. Poems (1969) xciv. 77   Ffollowe the right suche one shall alwaye fynde Hym self in peace and plentie to habounde.
1596   E. Spenser Prothalamion vi. sig. A4v   Let endlesse Peace your steadfast hearts accord, And blessed Plentie wait vpon you[r] bord.
a1618   J. Sylvester Cup Consol. 22 in Wks. (1880) II. 263/1   Smiling Hope..False-promiseth long Peace and plenty too.
1697   J. Dryden tr. Virgil Æneis viii, in tr. Virgil Wks. 447   With his mild Empire, Peace and Plenty came: And hence the Golden Times deriv'd their name.
1713   A. Pope Windsor-Forest 2   And Peace and Plenty tell, a Stuart reigns.
1781   E. Gibbon Decline & Fall (1787) III. xxx. 171   This scene of peace and plenty was suddenly changed into a desert.
1823   Ld. Byron Age of Bronze xv. 32   How rich is Britain! not indeed in mines, Or peace, or plenty, corn, or oil, or wines.
1860   J. Abbott Amer. Hist. I. vi. 181   After this the old wolf, every day when she came home with food for her young ones, gave the boy some of it too, and he continued living with this wild family for some time in peace and plenty.
1915   C. P. Gilman Herland in Forerunner Aug. 209/2   They were living in peace and power and plenty; we were their guests, their prisoners, absolutely dependent.
1949   W. S. Maugham Writer's Notebk. 306   The world has always been a place of turmoil. There have been short periods of peace and plenty, but they are exceptional.
1994   Time 24 Oct. 33 (heading)    While the poor are bewitched by dreams of peace and plenty, the rich are preparing for an apocalypse.

c1400—1994(Hide quotations)


 a. to keep the peace (also to keep peace ): to maintain public order; to prevent or refrain from public commotion or disorder; (gen.) to prevent or refrain from argument, strife, disruptive behaviour, or displays of hostile feeling, etc.

a1400  (a1325)    Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) 9689 (MED)   Wher of serueþ any assise..But for to kepe pees [a1400 Vesp. to yeme þe pes] in londe?
1422   Rolls of Parl. IV. 176/1   Execution of lawe and kepyng of Pees stant miche in Justice of Pees.
1444   Rolls of Parl. V. 123/2   The Baillifs..shall well and truly kepe the pees within the seid Toun.
a1475   Sidrak & Bokkus (Lansd.) (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Washington) (1965) 7567 (MED)   The þridde ben lordes þat þe pees kepe, For a man in pees may siker slepe.
1569   R. Grafton Chron. II. 162   Caused him to be newely sworne to kepe the peace of the lande.
1608   W. Shakespeare King Lear vii. 45   Keepe peace vpon your liues, hee dies that strikes againe.  View more context for this quotation
1663   S. Butler Hudibras: First Pt. i. i. 54   To keep the peace 'twixt Dog and Bear.
1735   B. Franklin Poor Richard's Almanack 1195   I had resolved to keep the Peace on my own part, and affront none of them.
1765   W. Blackstone Comm. Laws Eng. I. xiii. 411   To provide a determinate quantity of such arms as were then in use, in order to keep the peace.
1816   J. Austen Emma I. xi. 205   Emma..had half a mind to take it up; but she struggled, and let it pass. She would keep the peace if possible.  View more context for this quotation
1866   ‘G. Eliot’ Felix Holt I. ii. 77   It's a little awkward; but a clergyman must keep peace in a family.
1951   Evening Post (Wellington, N.Z.) 13 Jan. 12   The licensee's job of keeping the peace was a hard one.
2003   Carmarthen Jrnl. (Nexis) 29 Oct. 5   Davies was bound over to keep the peace for six months to the sum of £100.

a1400—2003(Hide quotations)


 b. to bind (also †hold) to the peace : to oblige (a person) to give a legal undertaking not to commit a breach of the peace. Also with over (cf. to bind over at bind v. 17b). Now chiefly Irish English.

c1475  (?c1425)    Avowing of King Arthur (1984) l. 336   Þus hase he wonun Kay on werre..And mekill of othir gere Is holden to þe pees.
a1516   H. Medwall Godely Interlude Fulgens ii. sig. e.viv   Kepe well your patience Lyke as I haue bound you both to the peace.
1601   B. Jonson Every Man in his Humor iv. i. sig. I2v   I haue a warrant of the peace serued on me euen now... Beare witnesse I was bound to the peace.
1618   M. Dalton Countrey Justice 139   If the partie shall mislike to be..bound to the peace.
1681   T. Otway Souldiers Fortune iii. i. 34   I'll have him bound to the peace instantly.
1717   C. Bullock Woman is Riddle ii. 25   I wou'd have you bind him over to the Peace, put him in the Crown Office, Swear an Assault against him.
1777   K. O'Hara April-day ii. 19   You owe to the police That bloodless, I resheath my sword; For I'm bound over to the peace.
1802   W. Gifford tr. Juvenal Satires (1817) iii. 134   I'm beaten first, then dragg'd in rage away; Bound to the peace, or punish'd for the fray!
1992   Irish Times (Nexis) 25 Nov. 4   [He] was given a six month suspended sentence and was bound to the peace for two years.
2003   Irish Independent (Nexis) 11 Oct.   Judge Angela Ni Chonduin said she would bind him to the peace for one year if he pays €200 to the victim.

c1475—2003(Hide quotations)


 c. to break the peace : to commit an offence against public order. Now chiefly historical.breach of the peace: see breach n. 3b.

1523   Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles I. cccxli. 217/2   Whiche of them yt euer should breake this peace..shoulde rynne in the sentence of the pope.
?1570   Homelie against Disobedience & Wylfull Rebellion i. sig. Biv   Subiectes..who..take armor wickedly..to breake the publike peace.
1575   in W. H. Turner Select. Rec. Oxf. (1880) 361   The peace might be broken.
a1616   W. Shakespeare Henry VI, Pt. 1 (1623) i. iv. 57   Fye Lords, that you being supreme Magistrates, Thus contumeliously should breake the Peace .  View more context for this quotation
a1680   S. Butler Genuine Remains (1759) I. 217   To maintain their own Hypotheses, Broke one another's Blockheads, and the Peace.
1749   H. Fielding Tom Jones III. vii. ix. 63   He would exceed his Authority by committing the Girl to Bridewell, as there had been no Attempt to break the Peace .  View more context for this quotation
1793   W. Blackstone Comm. Laws Eng. (ed. 12) 343   He may apprehend, and commit to prison, all persons who break the peace.
1831   Lincoln Herald 13 May   That intolerable Italian has done more to break the peace of this country than all the radicals and riotists in the last quarter of a century.
1886   Dict. National Biogr. at Burgh, William de   It was decreed that each baron should punish his own servants if they broke the peace.
1940   S. H. Holbrook Ethan Allen ii. 30   Hauled into local court before Justice Hutchinson, Ethan was charged with breaking the peace and with blasphemy.
1991   T. Horwitz Baghdad without Map iii. 30   The custom of kharab wa-turab—the right to ‘lay waste’ to an enemy who breaks the peace without paying blood money.

1523—1991(Hide quotations)


 d. to swear (also †pray) the peace against (a person) : to swear that one is in bodily fear from (a person), so that he or she may be bound over to keep the peace. Also †to swear the peace . Now historical.

1634   in Minutes Norwich Court Mayoralty 1632–5 (1967) 144   Robert Smyth prayeth the peace against Charles Glaven.
1643   W. Prynne Soveraigne Power Parl. iii. 21   They may sweare the peace against them.
1680   T. Shadwell Woman-captain iii. 35   Oh Lord have have mercy upon me! what shall I do? I'll swear the Peace against him, if I live and breath.
1740   D. Bellamy Rival Priests i, in Misc. II. 10   My old Friend, your Uncle, is a Corregidore.—I'll complain to him, and swear the Peace against the Rascal.
1773   K. O'Hara Golden Pippin i. 6   Ven. (in fear, screaming) I'll swear the peace:—keep at arms-length, Virago!
1822   Sat. Evening Post (Philadelphia) 19 Jan. 2/4   The fickle bridegroom changed his mind, and refused to marry..and the next morning swore the peace against those guests who had attempted to thump him into matrimony.
1880   Harper's Mag. Dec. 93/2   I've a good mind to send for Squire Battle and swear the peace against ye.
1939   R. H. Barker Mr Cibber of Drury Lane x. 188   Mrs Cibber..swore the peace against Theophilus and had him bound over on good behavior.
1969   J. R. Brackett Negro in Maryland ii. 24   The Council..decided to order the magistrate not to countenance the servant, for it was not customary to allow servants to swear the peace against their masters.

1634—1969(Hide quotations)


 P6. no peace for the wicked and variants: no rest or tranquillity (esp. for the speaker); incessant anxiety, responsibility, or work.Originally in or with allusion to the biblical use (Isaiah 48:22, 57:21; cf. also no rest for the wicked at rest n.1 Phrases 11a). Now frequently humorous or ironic rather than with any real suggestion of wickedness (cf. for my sins at sin n. 1a).

a1425  (c1395)    Bible (Wycliffite, L.V.) (Royal) (1850) Isa. xlviii. 22   Pees is not to wickid [a1382 E.V. vnpitous] men, seith the Lord.
a1425  (c1395)    Bible (Wycliffite, L.V.) (Royal) (1850) Isa. lvii. 21   The Lord God seide, Pees is not to wickid [a1382 E.V. vnpytouse] men.
1587   Bible (Geneva) Isa. xlviii. 22   There is no peace, sayeth the Lorde, vnto the wicked.
1612   J. Davies Muses Sacrifice f. 166 (title of poem)    That there is no peace to the Wicked.
1635   J. Reynolds Triumphs Gods Revenge (new ed.) iv. xvi. 303   As there is no peace to the wicked, so they shall finde no peace or tranquility here on Earth.
1674   W. Penn Wks. 107   I told thee before, that this Doctrine of thine Speaks Peace to the Wicked, whilst wicked. But there is no Peace to the Wicked, saith my God.
1732   Gentleman's Mag. July 864/1   There is no Peace for the Wicked; and whilst I can either write or speak, there shall be none for you.
1847   Southern & Western Lit. Messenger & Rev. July 410/2   Peace they seek, but there is no peace for the wicked.
1869   Harper's Mag. Dec. 76/1   Her life henceforward must be one long battle... ‘No peace for the wicked,’ said she mockingly to herself oftentimes.
1944   A. Thirkell Headmistress iv. 86   ‘It's for Dr. Perry.’.. ‘No peace for the wicked,’ said Dr. Perry.
1992   N. Barber Other Side of Paradise (BNC)    ‘Let's start work,’ Dr Reid sighed. ‘There's nae peace for the wicked.’

a1425—1992(Hide quotations)


 P7. Proverb. if you want peace, prepare for war and variants  [after post-classical Latin qui desiderat pacem, praeparet bellum (Vegetius De Rei Militari 3 prol.; compare Parabellum n.)] .

a1547   E. Hall Chron.: Edw. IV (1548) 209   He forgot the olde adage, sayinge, in tyme of peace provyde for warre.
1675   in A. Grey Debates House of Commons (1763) III. 414   'Tis a rule in time of peace, to prepare for war.
1787   tr. J. P. C. de Florian Adventures of Numa Pompilius II. 224   In the first place, thou hast need of peace: prepare then for war.
1850   Littell's Living Age 14 Dec. 526/2   It proves rather that if you want peace you must prepare for war, than any sublimer maxim.
1885   C. Lowe Prince Bismarck II. x. 99   Lord Beaconsfield had acted on the maxim that ‘if you want peace, you must prepare for war’.
1934   H. C. Bailey Shadow on Wall xvii. 175   If you want peace, prepare for war. Very appropriate. I do. I am.
1990   Washington Times 28 Aug. g2/1   As always, the success of diplomacy rests on the latent availability of force. If you seek peace, prepare for war.

a1547—1990(Hide quotations)


 P8. with a person's peace (also with the peace of a person )  [after classical Latin pāce (see pace prep.)] : without offence to a person; begging pardon of a person; = pace prep. Obsolete.

1631   B. Jonson Divell is Asse ii. ii, in Wks. II. 117   I speake it with my Masters peace.
1669   J. Flamsteed Let. 24 Nov. in Corr. (1995) I. 14   With the peace of that industrious astronomer,..I dare affirm that a part of the sun will..be likewise conspicuous.
1730   H. Fielding Temple Beau i. iii. 5   Sir Av. How now, Son! What puts you into this Passion?.. Y. Ped. Sir, with your Peace, I am not in a Passion.

1631—1730(Hide quotations)


 P9. peace be upon him (and variants): used as an expression of reverence for prophets, religious leaders, and other significant figures in Islam and (in earlier use also) Judaism; or (occasionally) of dead relatives or friends: ‘may he be granted peace’. Frequently used parenthetically, esp. following a name or title.

1646   J. Gregory Notes & Observ. To Rdr. sig. ¶   Melchisedeck sonne of Heraclim, which was the sonne of Phaleg, which was the sonne of Eber, which was the sonne of Arphaxat &c. till you come to..the sonne of Adam, Peace be upon him.
1699   H. Hesketh Great Men's Advantages & Obligations Relig. 22   Their Monuments are beheld with Reverence, and passers by Salute them, with a Peace be upon him, as the Jews did, and all Eastern Nations do to this day.
1780   J. White tr. Timur Specimen Civil & Mil. Inst. 13   By the influence of the Holy Religion of Mahummud (God's peace be upon him,) and with the assistance of the powerful descendants and illustrious followers of that Prophet.
1854   Blackwood's Edinb. Mag. Apr. 489/1   Nefta..was built—or, rather the foundation of it was laid—by Saidna Noah (our Lord Noah): peace be upon him! Here he discovered the first dry spot.
1892   I. Zangwill Children of Ghetto I. 177   If you had come round when he was sitting Shivah for Benjamin—peace be upon him!—you would have known.
1939   A. A. Beg Poet of East i. 120   Unless one studied him at close quarters, it was difficult to appreciate his admiration and love for Islam and the holy Prophet (Peace be upon him!).
2000   Z. Smith White Teeth (2001) vi. 138   There is an hadith of the Prophet Muhammad—peace be upon Him!

1646—2000(Hide quotations)


 P10. Church History. the Peace of the Church : (also with lower-case initials) the declaration by Constantine and Licinius in the Edict of Milan ( a.d. 313) that members of non-Roman religions, especially Christians, were no longer to be persecuted; (also) the condition of Christianity in the Roman Empire after this declaration.

1705   T. Hearne Ductor Historicus (ed. 2) I. ii. vi. 214   The State of Christianity under its Persecution is shewn, and the Peace of the Church under Constantine declared.
1776   E. Gibbon Decline & Fall I. xvi. 575   The space of ten years, which elapsed between the first edicts of Diocletian, and the final peace of the church.
1851   Times 7 Oct. 4/3   From the cruel persecutions of Diocletian and Galerius arose the peace of the church under Constantine.
1893   R. Lanciani Pagan & Christian Rome iv. 196   I pass over the fate of the emperors of the second and third centuries, and resume my description with those who came to power after the peace of the church.
1947   W. Lowrie Art in Early Church ii. 20   We are obliged to assume that during a century of more before the Peace of the Church a tradition had been formed for the adornment of churches.
1996   Archaeol. Rep. for 1995–6 (Soc. for Promotion Hellenic Stud.) No. 42. 68/2   The neat symmetry of the original scheme..was spoiled by the addition of rotundas for the Syracusan aristocracy after the Peace of the Church.

1705—1996(Hide quotations)



 C1. General attributive (chiefly in sense 6).

  peace accord   n.

1920   Lima (Ohio) Daily News & Times-Democrat 13 Aug. (headline)    U.S. and France in peace accord.
1969   N.Y. Times 14 May 3/1   Menahem Begin..said..that Israel recently rejected a United States proposal that she agree to a contractual peace accord that would mutually obligate the parties involved in the Middle East dispute.
1996   European 30 May 11/1   The incident is a glaring illustration of the failure of Milosevic to honour the pledge he made at the Dayton peace accord to hand over alleged war criminals.

1920—1996(Hide quotations)


  peace activist   n.

1944   Washington Post 22 June 1/6   The struggle between peace activists and the pro-German clique in Finland was nearing a climax.
1992   Peace Mag. Nov. 4/2   The biggest news of the decade for peace activists has hardly been publicized at all.

1944—1992(Hide quotations)


  peace advocate   n.

1807–8   J. B. Burges Exodiad i. ii. 91   Why then do these peace-advocates essay To check our vengeance, when the word of power Bids us advance?
1991   Village Voice (N.Y.) 5 Feb. 8/1   Peace advocates are capable of expressing themselves in more than just slogans, chants, and soundbites.

1807—1991(Hide quotations)


  peace agreement   n.

1858   E. D. Neill Hist. Minnesota 336   The peace agreement between the Ojibways and the Dahkotahs.
1905   Westm. Gaz. 9 June 2/1   It was thought on Kuropatkin's defeat that the war was over, and that Russia must needs seek a peace-agreement.
1994   Denver Post 16 Jan. a6/2   The meeting likely will be..a watershed that most agreed will help pave the way for a future peace agreement.

1858—1994(Hide quotations)


  peace aim   n.

1909   Times 15 Sept. 7/2   As to the peace aims of the scouts, I would suggest that those who have any doubts as to the truth of this should study ‘Scouting for Boys’.
1992   Economist 22 Aug. 12/1   Realistic peace aims have to start with an understanding of the kind of war this is.

1909—1992(Hide quotations)


  peace area   n.

1905   Times 26 Apr. 3/2   The necessity of continuing the [Anglo-Japanese] alliance as a potent instrument for preserving the peace area.
1957   Economist 28 Sept. 1000/1   Replace alliances by security pacts—create ‘peace areas’ (ranging from southern Asia to the Baltic).
2003   Jakarta Post (Nexis) 26 Jan.   The eight peace centers will cover all 19 regencies and mayoralties before the whole of Aceh is eventually declared as a peace area.

1905—2003(Hide quotations)


  peace army   n.

1849   Times 13 Jan. 5/1   The arrangement..does not seem so necessary in the peace army of England as in that of any other European Power.
1897   Westm. Gaz. 28 July 3/3   Should not our brave and patient peace army [sc. the police force] be considered?
1977   Amer. Hist. Rev. 82 303   The diocesan peace-army was not as such, and Peter's more urgent needs undoubtedly lay elsewhere.

1849—1977(Hide quotations)


  peace bloc   n.

1925   Times 30 Apr. 12/3   It is better at once to assume the leadership of a European Peace bloc than dance on a tight-rope between the Reds and Blues.
1939   W. S. Churchill Into Battle (1941) 94   The first [step]..is the full inclusion of Soviet Russia in our defensive peace bloc.
1985   Chicago Tribune (Nexis) 6 Dec. 26   Rev. Jesse Jackson and his peace bloc allies have not been selected by the American electorate to lead us on a ‘walk in the woods’ with Mikhail Gorbachev.

1925—1985(Hide quotations)


  peace campaigner   n.

1930   D. Allen Fight for Peace iv. 56   Let no conservative peace campaigner fail to note that safety valve, ‘offensive war’.
1953   Encounter Nov. 25/2   The wish-dream world of the Stockholm peace campaigner.
1995   C. Bateman Divorcing Jack v. 49   His status as victim and peace campaigner quickly catapulted him into the limelight.

1930—1995(Hide quotations)


  peace conference   n.

1852   Times 28 Feb. 5/6   [Signed] Edmund Fry, Secretary of the Peace Conference.
1899   Hazell's Ann. 1900 462/1   A Peace Conference was held at the Hague in May, June, and July '99.
2002   N.Y. Times 12 May iv. 1/1   Since announcing..the peace conference, the Bush administration has gone out of its way to say that it will be only a meeting of ministers.

1852—2002(Hide quotations)


  peace congress   n.

1848   Times 21 Sept. 3/1 (advt.)    The Standard of Freedom of Saturday next..will contain a copious Report of the Great Peace Congress at Brussels.
1993   Dict. National Biogr.: Missing Persons 653/1   In 1717 he was appointed..joint mediator at the Austro-Turkish peace congress at Passarowitz.

1848—1993(Hide quotations)


  peace convention   n.

1838   Ohio Repository 24 May 3/2   A Peace Convention, composed of delegates from the various Peace Societies of the U. States, met at New York on the 2d inst.
2000   Hindu (Nexis) 17 July   The Forum of Chief Ministers of the North-Eastern States has decided to organise a regional peace convention in Guwahati in the last week of August.

1838—2000(Hide quotations)


  peace crank   n.

1915   W. H. Page Let. 6 June in B. J. Hendrick Life & Lett. W. H. Page (1922) II. xiv. 10   We're in danger of being feminized and fadridden—grape juice..; pensions; Christian Science; peace-cranks; [etc.].
1973   F. Davis Atlantic Syst. vii. 204   Mahan's clear, unemotional voice rose above the chorus of the ‘peace cranks’ (Taft's words) as he bade the United States realize that [etc.].

1915—1973(Hide quotations)


  peace cry   n.

1836   D. O'Connell Let. 18 Sept. in Times 26 Sept. 1/3   Prosperity and justice from England, or from herself—such must be the ‘peace cry’ of Ireland.
1884   E. A. Abbott Flatland (ed. 2) ii. xvi. 67   As soon as the sound of the Peace-cry of my departing Wife had died away, I began to approach the Stranger.
1931   E. Sisson One Hundred Red Days xii. 184   Their leaders were being dealt such a blow of punitive peace terms by Germany that the peace cry of Sunday was followed by war clamor of Monday.

1836—1931(Hide quotations)


  peace demonstration   n.

1849   Times 23 July 5/1   The peace demonstration ended in a proposal that we should go on doing pretty much what we have already been doing for thirty years or more.
1987   V. Mollenkott Godding vi. 95   Those who have spent time in jail for civil-rights or peace demonstrations, or for giving sanctuary to refugees.

1849—1987(Hide quotations)


  peace fighter   n.

1952   Times 4 Nov. 4/4   Peking radio last night said it [sc. the delegation from Moscow] was given a rousing reception by the Chinese cultural leaders and ‘peace-fighters’.
2003   Daily Times (Salisbury, Maryland) (Nexis) 10 Feb.   Arun Gandhi, grandson of the legendary peace fighter and spiritual leader Mahatma Gandhi.

1952—2003(Hide quotations)


  peace feeler   n.

1856   Spectator 5 Jan. 1/1   To put forward a plausible peace ‘feeler’ at present, could do no great harm to the projects of Napoleon the Third.
1918   Vanity Fair Sept. 52/1   This opening remark of mine should not be construed as a pro-German peace feeler.
1984   G. H. Clarfield & W. M. Wiecek Nucl. Amer. iii. 63   In official circles,..Japanese peace feelers counted for little.

1856—1984(Hide quotations)


  peace formula   n.

1909   Evening Telegram (Elyria, Ohio) 14 Feb. 11/4   The Morning Post..has been a severe critic of the Wilson peace formula and of the attitude the president has taken at the peace conference.
1996   Church Times 19 July 2/1   The Archbishop was keeping a low profile as he tried to put together a new peace formula.

1909—1996(Hide quotations)


  peace front   n.

1919   Times 17 June 13/2   The necessity of a united peace front is just as great as was the necessity for a united war front.
1988   M. Scriven Paul Nizan Communist Novelist (BNC) 46   Only a united peace front could halt the aggressive, war-mongering development of fascist nation states.

1919—1988(Hide quotations)


  peace haven   n.

1893   H. M. Doughty Our Wherry in Wendish Lands 18   Sweet peace-haven! The fret and clatter of the world could not disturb..even the lightest of our dreams.
1952   N. Demuth Musical Trends 20th Cent. vii. 92   In the peace-haven of Mills he produced in all tranquillity four works of classical proportions but not of classical design.
2003   J. R. Ridley & J. Channing Safety at Work (ed. 6) iii. 563   The two major methods of personnel protection are the provision of a quiet room or peace haven, and the wearing of ear-muffs.

1893—2003(Hide quotations)


  peace hero   n.

1855   Times 19 Mar. 8/6   It has long been my opinion that whenever England shall engage in war, her cavalry system, too long the toy of peace heroes, would inevitably break down.
1997   D. P. Fry & K. Bjökqvist Cultural Variation in Conflict Resolution xx. 239   Why is the hero, the accepted hero, always a military hero? Why not a peace hero?

1855—1997(Hide quotations)


  peace initiative   n.

1902   Chicago Tribune 31 Jan. 3   The Brussels correspondent of the Standard declares that the peace initiative on the part of Holland was decided upon at the personal instigation of Queen Wilhelmina.
1955   E. B. Haas in Amer. Polit. Sci. Rev. 49 58   Apparently afraid that the ‘peace initiative’ was passing into Western hands, Vyshinsky now amended his own resolution by demanding an immediate ceasefire as a condition for further negotiations.
2000   Guardian (Electronic ed.) 21 Apr.   Both sides are gearing up for heavy fighting during the coming months, while they manoeuvre for political leverage in competing peace initiatives.

1902—2000(Hide quotations)


  peace mediator   n.

1884   W. Beatty-Kingston tr. J. H. Moritz Busch Our Chancellor II. ii. 130   I [sc. Bismarck] don't picture to myself a peace-mediator playing the part of an arbitrator.
1992   Keesing's Contemp. Archives (BNC) Mar.   The ISI had developed sharp differences with UN peace mediators in Afghanistan.

1884—1992(Hide quotations)


  peace meeting   n.

1846   Republican Compiler (Gettysburg, Pa.) 27 Apr. 3/3   A large Peace meeting was held in London immediately previous to the sailing of the Unicorn.
1939   C. Day Lewis Child of Misfortune iii. i. 260   Sitting on the platform at peace meetings.
1985   G. Paley Later Same Day 186   All those peace meetings you go to.

1846—1985(Hide quotations)


  peace-mentality   n.

1919   J. L. Garvin Econ. Found. Peace 37   The efforts of the Western democracies were for a long time hindered by the peace-mentality of most statesmen and by traditional conceptions of war in the minds of most soldiers.
1962   R. Macleod & D. Kelly Time Unguarded (1963) viii. 128   Although we were at war, a peace mentality seemed to pervade all departments.

1919—1962(Hide quotations)


  peace mission   n.

1841   Times 27 Feb. 4/6   He was then secretary to a so-called peace-mission in North America.
1904   E. D. Adams Influence Grenville Pitt's Foreign Policy 78   They are of value in elucidating Pitt's secret diplomacy in the case of Nootka Sound, and in the steps leading to Malmesbury's peace mission of 1796.
1992   Today (BNC)    The Archbishop of Canterbury began a peace mission within the Church of England yesterday to prevent civil war over the ordination of women priests.

1841—1992(Hide quotations)


peace-mistress   n. Obsolete

1590   R. Harvey Plaine Percevall 6   Our most roiall Peace-Mistres holds the sterne.

1590—1590(Hide quotations)


  peace move   n.

1899   Newark (Ohio) Daily News 18 May 1/2 (headline)    Aspect of affairs is now favorable, cabled Otis from Manilla today. To be another peace move.
1915   Times 12 Aug. 6/3   What the [New York] Tribune fears is that Washington may be inveigled into giving countenance to this peace move engineered by Germany.
1991   Canberra Times 31 Jan. 7/7   Australia's High Commissioner to PNG..met Sir Michael on Friday to discuss the latest peace moves on Bougainville, wracked by a bloody two-year secessionist uprising.

1899—1991(Hide quotations)


  peace movement   n.

1839   U.S. Mag. & Democratic Rev. Mar. 289   The Peace movement has encountered less opposition in this country and abroad, than perhaps any other cause of moral reform.
1927   Amer. Mercury Feb. 142/2   The editorial goes on to demonstrate that all the peace movements originate in that suburb of Gehenna, Moscow.
1997   N.Y. Times Bk. Rev. 2 Mar. 14/2   His training in the peace movement, and his sophisticated understanding of philosophies of nonviolence and social witness, made him an influential and valued adviser.

1839—1997(Hide quotations)


  peace negotiation   n.

1847   Times 16 Aug. 8/2   He is now charged..with defeating the peace negotiation, in not forwarding, promptly, the overtures of Mr. Buchanan.
1855   J. L. Motley Rise Dutch Republic I. i. iii. 205   Pending the peace negotiations, Philip had been called upon to mourn for his wife and father.
1996   Japan Times 29 Apr. 5/5   Israel also secured written rules of engagement that it hopes will bring a period of quiet lasting long enough to complete peace negotiations with Syria.

1847—1996(Hide quotations)


  peace offer   n.

1872   H. S. Knapp Hist. Maumee Valley Index 6   Legislative hostilities between Ohio and Michigan—efforts at compromise—Governor Mason, of Michigan, rejects the peace offers.
1991   Economist (BNC) 16   If the Arabs bring to the table a peace offer that ordinary Israelis feel they can safely accept.

1872—1991(Hide quotations)


  peace overture   n.

1852   Southern Q. Rev. Jan. 127   He said..that he expected ‘soon to be joined by American Commissioners’ to receive peace overtures from Mexico.
1970   Pacific Affairs 43 63   Japan's ‘path to calamity’..was strewn with what the Japanese considered to be fair and honorable peace overtures toward China.

1852—1970(Hide quotations)


  peace paean   n.

1892   C. Scollard Songs of Sunrise Lands 98   Before the birth-song of the Galilean Thrilled through the spheres afar, Long ere the echo of that sweet peace pæan Was borne from star to star.
1943   P. Sargent War & Educ. 96   A week after Lord Cecil's peace paean, Japan invaded Manchuria.

1892—1943(Hide quotations)


  peace party   n.

1813   Daily National Intelligencer (Washington) 8 Nov.   One of the most curious geniuses among the whole of the Eastern peace-party..is William Jones, Esq. the Governor of Rhode Island.
1863   J. H. Carleton Let. 23 June in Condition of Indian Tribes (U.S. Congr. Joint Special Comm.) (1867) 116   Tell them they can have until the twentieth day of July of this year to come in—they and all those who belong to what they call the peace party.
1916   M. B. Lowndes Let. 8 Dec. (1971) 78   Violet Markham thinks L.G. will last out a good while but that all ‘the Old Gang’ as people are beginning to call them, will gradually crystallise into a Peace Party.
1968   Peace News 21 June 7/4 (advt.)    London WC i. 7.30 p.m. 29 Great James Street. Summer Peace Party and Barbecue.

1813—1968(Hide quotations)


  peace petition   n.

1864   J. P. Benjamin Let. 19 Dec. in Official Rec. Union & Confederate Navies War of Rebellion (U.S. Naval War Rec. Office) (1922) 2nd Ser. III. 1252   I note your statement of an expenditure of £300 for Mr. McHenry's books, and £150 to aid the parties who signed the peace petition.
1920   M. Reynolds Learned Lady in Eng. ii. 203   In 1643..the women of London, with white silk ribbons in their hats, went in great numbers to the House bearing a peace petition.
1973   E. Jong Fear of Flying (1974) ii. 23   Their mildly leftist political views, their signing of peace petitions..were just camouflage.

1864—1973(Hide quotations)


  peace plan   n.

1855   Times 17 Dec. 7/6   It is not known to me whether the peace plan of the western diplomatists has met with the approval of the Nestor of British diplomatists.
1968   Listener 3 Oct. 429/1   The process has apparently forced the Israelis to clarify their position with a ‘peace plan’.
1996   Sunday Tel. 4 Feb. 22/5   The passing of the midnight deadline for the withdrawal of warring parties from areas designated by the Bosnian peace plan.

1855—1996(Hide quotations)


  peace principle   n.

1814   J. Steele Hist. Eccl. Proc. Relative to Third Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia 29 (heading)    Reflections on the Unchristian Practice of War—Peace Principles applicable to National Government.
2003   Oregonian (Portland, Oregon) (Nexis) 15 May 3   Ackerman's Student Peace Advocates, an elective course that makes peace principles part of the school's curriculum and daily routine.

1814—2003(Hide quotations)


  peace propaganda   n.

1892   Times 27 Dec. 3/2   There has been opened at Berne a central office, where union and method are secured for the furtherance of the peace propaganda.
1929   D. H. Lawrence Pansies 85   Loud peace propaganda makes war seem imminent.
1998   C. Kelly in C. Kelly & D. Shepherd Russ. Cultural Stud. xi. 224   Items of peace propaganda mainly produced for export (such as the ubiquitous poster reproduction of Picasso Dove of Peace on relatively high-quality shiny paper).

1892—1998(Hide quotations)


  peace protest   n.

1848   F. A. Kemble Let. Feb. in Rec. Later Life (1882) III. 383   All of them..likened their corn-law league, and peace protests, to the first measures of the first leaders of the French Revolution.
1932   B. F. Trueblood Devel. Peace Idea i. 21   The Friends as a body continued their peace protest.
2004   Independent on Sunday (Nexis) 15 Feb. 46   He joins peace protests and marches so frequently he's had to buy a new pair of trainers.

1848—2004(Hide quotations)


  peace protester   n.

1965   Sheboygan (Wisconsin) Press 16 Sept. 13/6 (headline)    Peace protester jailed.
2004   Gloucester Citizen (Nexis) 26 Feb. 6   A peace protester..was yesterday convicted..of aggravated trespass during anti Gulf war demos.

1965—2004(Hide quotations)


  peace rally   n.

1919   Times 31 Oct. 9/4   Princess Mary..will be present at the Peace Rally of the Girl Guides at the Albert Hall next Tuesday.
1951   ‘A. Garve’ Murder in Moscow iii. 43   I attended a great ‘peace’ rally at the Bolshoi Theatre.
1995   C. Bateman Divorcing Jack xxii. 192   ‘Traffic's startin' to jam up’. ‘More bomb scares?’ ‘Nah, sure today's Brinn's big peace rally. They're sealin' off round the City Hall’.

1919—1995(Hide quotations)


  peace settlement   n.

1859   A. J. H. Duganne War in Europe 4   Before noticing the basis of Peace Settlement made by the Congress of Vienna, I shall glance at the position of various nations affected by the treaties of 1815.
1862   A. D. Mann Let. 13 June in Official Rec. Union & Confederate Navies War of Rebellion (U.S. Naval War Rec. Office) (1922) 2nd Ser. III. 442   He most assuredly never entertained the notion of any peace settlement.
1991   South Aug. 15/3   During this year's attempts by the US to broker a peace settlement in the region, many remembered that back in the 1950s, the US government attempted to organise a number of deals between Israel and its Arab neighbours.

1859—1991(Hide quotations)


  peace society   n.

1816   N. Worcester Friend of Peace I. vii. 30 (heading)    First annual Report of the Massachusetts Peace Society.
1887   H. R. Haggard She viii. 103   I thought of what the amiable Head of my College at Cambridge (who is a member of the Peace Society) and my brother Fellows would say if by clairvoyance they could see me, of all men, playing such a bloody game.
2002   Manila Bull. (Nexis) 24 Nov.   Frederic Passy (France), founder of the first French peace society.

1816—2002(Hide quotations)


  peace tax   n.

1816   Times 4 Mar. 2/5   In no shape..will we tolerate as a peace tax that which, in the minister's own words, ‘is strictly a war tax’.
1858   J. B. Norton Topics for Indian Statesmen 236   They have seen an income-tax take the successive forms of a peace-tax, a war-tax, and then a peace-tax again.
1990   Union Leader (Manchester, New Hampsh.) (Nexis) 25 Oct.   He had also advocated a controversial Peace Tax favored by the ultra-left in American politics.

1816—1990(Hide quotations)


  peace terms   n.

1858   Times 24 May 9/2   A special despatch..states that that the Mormon Peace Commissioners have no authority to make peace terms with Brigham Young.
1992   P. G. Allen Sacred Hoop (new ed.) 85   The conflict between..traditional Indians and those Indians who ‘came in’, that is, accepted the whites' peace terms and left their traditional life.

1858—1992(Hide quotations)


  peace treaty   n.

1850   Examiner 7 Sept. 573/3   No peace-treaty between France and England ever went so far to unite them as the voyage of the Goliah did last month.
1929   W. S. Churchill World Crisis IV. viii. 158   An article of the Peace Treaty obliged the Germans to stigmatize all their greatest men and potentates as War Criminals.
1992   Economist 18 Jan. 65/1   The two countries, which have observed a de facto peace since the 1967 war, agreed that their aim was a peace treaty and full diplomatic relations.

1850—1992(Hide quotations)

 b. Objective.

  peace-bearer   n.

c1650   Rolls of Parl. II. 435/2   His ship called the Portpays or Peace Bearer.
1837   B. D. Walsh tr. Aristophanes Acharnians i. v, in Comedies 28   Nor had this peace-bearer then Skipped away.
1978   ELH 45 579   But Lucan the Butler's hopeful and touching reception of the third peace-bearer..and Arthur's response to her message—..are both dashed by Gawain's intractable ‘Sertis, nay’.

c1650—1978(Hide quotations)


peace-breach   n. Obsolete

1610   P. Holland tr. W. Camden Britain i. 350   For Robbery, peace-breach and Foristell.
1894   O. Elton in tr. Saxo Grammaticus Nine Bks. Danish Hist. (1905) I. Introd. 34   Where Dane robbed Dane, the thief to pay double and peace-breach.

1610—1894(Hide quotations)


  peace-bringer   n.

1625   K. Long tr. J. Barclay Argenis i. xx. 62   This day was not to be honoured as a peace-bringer.
1888   E. Emerton Introd. Stud. Middle Ages xiv. 217   The people cried out with one voice, ‘Long life and victory to Charles Augustus, the mighty Emperor, the Peace-bringer, crowned by God!’
1992   Jrnl. Southern Afr. Stud. 18 703   They saw themselves..as peace-bringers, and thus as profoundly moral beings.

1625—1992(Hide quotations)


peace-concluder   n. Obsolete

1643   J. Angier Lancashires Valley of Achor 5   Had not God..moved them to be the Peace-keepers, which were not the peace-concluders.

1643—1643(Hide quotations)


peace-looker   n. Obsolete

1878   R. L. Stevenson Inland Voy. 131   A mother is left desolate, and the peace-maker and peace-looker, of a whole society is laid in the ground.

1878—1878(Hide quotations)


  peace-lover   n.

1609   S. Daniel Civile Wares (rev. ed.) i. lxxiv. 20   Peace-louer wealth, hating a troublous State.
1876   Ld. Tennyson Harold i. ii. 28   Peace-lover is our Harold.
1998   Irish Times (Nexis) 5 June 14   This should not be taken to mean that nationalists are the peace-lovers and unionists the warmongers.

1609—1998(Hide quotations)


  peace-prater   n.

1811   R. Southey in Q. Rev. 6 275   The husbanding politicians and peace-praters.
1865   Old Guard May 235/1   The peace-prater's cry is ‘the Union as it was.’
2000   Islam & Christianity Really Same Religion? Pt. 2 in alt.religion.islam (Usenet newsgroup) 1 Sept.   Even most of the peace-praters will still jump up and join a slaughter as long as they are assured the sponsorship of their church or state.

1811—2000(Hide quotations)


  peace-preserver   n.

1715   R. Wodrow Corr. (1843) II. 57   If peace-makers be blessed, peace-preservers will not want their own share.
1874   A. H. Chappell Misc. Georgia 60   He had been occupying officially between Georgia and the Indians what may almost be called a heavenly, mediatorial relation, faithfully devoting himself as peace-maker, peace-preserver, and peace-restorer.
1986   Christian Sci. Monitor (Nexis) 20 May 39   His [sc. Paul's] instructions were accompanied by two buoyant peace-preservers: joy and gratitude.

1715—1986(Hide quotations)


  peace-seeker   n.

1671   J. Baltharpe Straights Voy. 16   We scorne with them to be Peace seekers.
1850   Littell's Living Age 23 Nov. 378/1   The Stadtholderate stated that they could not make ‘any sort of proposition’; and they gave the three peace-seekers ‘no mission’.
1926   Amer. Speech 1 198/1   The Brownists of Shakespeare's time were the immediate forerunners of the Quakers, peace-seekers like them, and treated to much the same opprobrium.
1999   Jerusalem Post (Nexis) 7 Jan. 4   He claimed the Palestinians are peace-seekers and do not want violence.

1671—1999(Hide quotations)


  peace-breathing adj.

a1699   J. Beaumont Psyche (1702) vi. clxvi. 79   A goodly Army of peace-breathing Graces Were rang'd by these in Love's serene array.
1826   A. A. Watts Bachelor's Dilemma vii   Pensive and peace-breathing beauty.

a1699—1826(Hide quotations)


  peace-bringing adj.

1677   R. Gilpin Dæmonol. Sacra iii. xxv. 210   The comfortable and peace-bringing Promises of the Gospel.
1992   Transition No. 56. 102/2   Christensen focuses on the especial importance of the peace-bringing tree of life.

1677—1992(Hide quotations)


  peace-commanding adj.

1807   J. Barlow Columbiad x. 359   Enlighten'd interest, moral sense at length Combine their aids to elevate her strength, Lead o'er the world her peace-commanding sway.

1807—1807(Hide quotations)


  peace-conferring adj.

1909   W. James Pluralistic Universe iii. 128   It [sc. the absolute] might, with all its defects, be, on account of its peace-conferring power and its formal grandeur, more rational than anything else in the field.

1909—1909(Hide quotations)


  peace-giving adj.

a1822   P. B. Shelley Death in T. J. Hogg Life Shelley (1858) I. 197   The grave, Where Innocence sleeps 'neath the peace-giving sod.
1879   E. Arnold Light of Asia v. 129   Who is this that brings the sacrifice So graceful and peace-giving as he goes?
1980   Christian Sci. Monitor (Nexis) 19 Dec. 21   I had an example of the peace-giving nature of love in my own family.

a1822—1980(Hide quotations)


  peace-inspiring adj.

a1778   A. Steele Misc. Pieces (1780) 46   Kind hope, the mourner's faithful friend, Thy peace-inspiring lore O let my drooping heart attend.
1828   B. Disraeli Voy. Capt. Popanilla x. 119   The calm and peace-inspiring crosier.
1991   Atlanta Jrnl. & Constit. (Nexis) 31 May d3   ‘No speeches, no talks,’ says Prakhara Carter..‘just peace-inspiring music.’

a1778—1991(Hide quotations)


  peace-loving adj.

1604   W. Herbert Prophesie of Cadwallader l. 993   My pen applaudes that sentence iust of thine, Romes holy Prince, peace louing Antonine.
1793   K. O'Keefe Sprigs of Laurel i. i. 1   What was a poor honest peace-loving husband to do?
1998   W. Shatner et al. Spectre vi. 66   Even the peace-loving Cardassian people can learn from human perfidy.

1604—1998(Hide quotations)


  peace-preaching adj.

1853   Times 16 July 5/5   One of the most democratic, economical, and peace-preaching communities of the united kingdom.
1994   Ticket Aug. 22/1   Three years ago, AD were a novelty, a Southern, rural, peace-preaching rap outfit in a marketplace dominated by rip-roaring gangsta poses.

1853—1994(Hide quotations)


  peace-procuring adj.

1643   W. Prynne Soveraigne Power Parl. i. Pref. sig. Aijb   State-securing, Peace-procuring verities.
a1729   E. Taylor Metrical Hist. Christianity (1962) 98   The gist of Healing did inrich him and He also had a Peace procuring hand.
1977   Jrnl. Sport Hist. 4 90   A romantic, idealistic spirit espousing a naive faith in the peace procuring powers of friendly competition among the youth of the world.

1643—1977(Hide quotations)


  peace-promoting adj.

1846   Southern Q. Rev. Oct. 440   Every great discovery has a life-saving and peace-promoting influence.
2001   Deseret News (Salt Lake City) (Nexis) 7 Dec. c2   [He] has distinguished himself more out of office than within with various peace-promoting and humanitarian projects.

1846—2001(Hide quotations)


  peace-restoring adj.

1780   W. Cowper Table Talk 79   To touch the sword with conscientious awe,..To sheathe it, in the peace-restoring close, With joy.
1849   C. Brontë Shirley II. vi. 150   His phlegm..made his vicinage pleasant, it was so peace-restoring.
2003   Herald Sun (Melbourne) (Nexis) 15 Aug. 11   Nick Warner..has moved to oversee Australia's peace-restoring mission in the Solomon Islands.

1780—2003(Hide quotations)

 d. Locative, instrumental, etc.

  peace-abiding adj.

1858   M. C. Cabell Sketches & Recoll. Lynchburg 17   [He] was dismissed from his peace-abiding congregation because a strong sense of duty to his suffering and struggling country impelled him to hear arms in her defence.
1916   W. B. Munro Princ. & Methods Munic. Admin. vii. 291   No such occasions may present themselves to an officer who patrols a peace-abiding suburb.
1997   Vancouver Sun (Nexis) 27 Oct. a13   This is a distinct issue..from the reluctance of peace-abiding refugee claimants without status to leave.

1858—1997(Hide quotations)


peace-blessed adj. Obsolete

c1620   in E. Farr Sel. Poetry Reign James I (1848) 315   Your wisdome, bountie, and peace-bless'd raygne.
1714   A. Hill Dedication Beech-tree 4   Accept, what Heav'n, propitious for Your Sake, Smiles on this Peace-bless'd Land, and bids her take.

c1620—1714(Hide quotations)


  peace-calm adj.

1939   R. Campbell Flowering Rifle i. 15   And loosing these in turn to drink and graze The peace-calm waters and the flowery ways.

1939—1939(Hide quotations)


  peace-complacent adj.

1928   S. Sassoon Heart's Journey (new ed.) 31   Paid, with a pile of peace-complacent stone.

1928—1928(Hide quotations)


peace-enamoured adj. Obsolete

1800   T. Campbell Pleasures of Hope ii. 11   Triumph not, ye peace-enamour'd few!

1800—1800(Hide quotations)


  peace-inspired adj.

1877   P. J. Bailey Festus (ed. 10) xl. 637   Thus, peace-inspired, we war.
1995   Jerusalem Post (Nexis) 5 May 12   Next month's Ministry of Tourism-sponsored fashion show in Caesarea, in which big-name designers..will present peace-inspired creations.

1877—1995(Hide quotations)


  peace-lulled adj.

1871   B. Taylor tr. J. W. von Goethe Faust II. i. v. 83   Peace-lulled seas.
1985   Amer. Polit. Sci. Rev. 79 265/2   This crisis results from the strain on peace-lulled materialistic societies because of escalating military materiel and personnel costs..and the welfare state.

1871—1985(Hide quotations)


  peace-minded adj.

1877   P. J. Bailey Festus (ed. 10) xviii. 264   The Spirit's celestial ship, Manned by their holy and apostolic crew Peace minded, who with love all worlds, all souls, subdue.
1933   Times 28 Oct. 8/4   The way to peace..is only to be attained by educating children to be peace-minded rather than war-minded.
1995   Guardian 5 Dec. i. 9/7   Mr Weisel will invite peace-minded cybernauts to type in questions to Mr Mandela in Pretoria, Mr Peres in Jerusalem and Mr Carter in Atlanta.

1877—1995(Hide quotations)


  peace belt   n. North American (now historical) a belt of wampum used by North American Indians as a sign of peace.

1758   in New Jersey Archives (1898) XX. 297   Peace was solemnly ratified by a large peace belt.
1897   Jrnl. Anthropol. Inst. 26 237   Chief Mandorong could only tell me that it was a peace-belt, representing an important treaty or alliance of ancient times.
1926   C. Mair Masterwks. Canad. Authors XIV. 207   The colour of the..peace belt [was white].
1989   A. S. Goodstein From Frontier to City ii. 26   In 1792 he served as Governor Blount's emissary to the friendly Chickasaw and to the more hostile Choctaw, who tore up the peace belt he offered.

1758—1989(Hide quotations)


  peace bond   n. North American a bond required by a court from an individual deemed to pose a threat to the safety or property of others, intended to deter that person from disturbing the peace; cf. restraining order n. at restraining adj. Compounds.

1859   Jrnl. House of Assembly Newfoundland App. 561/4   Cause..Threatened assault..Judgment..Gave Peace Bond.
1930   Athens (Ohio) Messenger 22 Jan. 2/6   Ten men..were placed under peace bonds today to preserve order in the ‘Bloody’ Twin Creek District.
2001   S. Paretsky Total Recall (2002) xxvi. 261   I did tell Radbuka he would have to leave, that Max was swearing out a peace bond, which meant he could be arrested for hanging around the premises.

1859—2001(Hide quotations)


  peacebuilder   n. a person or organization which advocates, encourages, or brings about peace; (in later use) spec. one which seeks to implement measures intended to create or sustain peace in a region affected by war or other conflict, typically through support for economic, political, and social development.In quot. 1914   showing universal peace in attributive use modifying builders rather than this compound.

[1914   F. Moscheles Let. in War & Peace Jan. 93/2   We cordially welcome the new Universal Peace Builders—may there be many of them!]
1916   Labor Call (Melbourne) 13 July 8/1   Peace..is stamping ahead in Europe... The peace builders are the King of Spain, President Wilson, the Pope, and Henry Ford is in the midst of all these.
1946   U.N. Conf. Internat. Organization 1945: Sel. Documents (U.S. Dept. of State Publ. 2490, Conf. Ser. 83) 338   It is for us to prevent this monstrous possibility [sc. a third world war]... We the peacemakers, we the peacebuilders, dare not disappoint the hopes and prayers of a whole suffering world, centred on us here.
1995   Economist 16 Dec. 50/1   Troops..will provide the military muscle to oversee the peace [in Bosnia]. Since the soldiers are likely to be around in strength for only about a year..the peace-builders have to deploy quickly too.
2013   C. Zürcher et al. Costly Democracy ii. 20   Peacebuilders seek to build fully developed, democratic, and economically viable states on the ruins of war.

1916—2013(Hide quotations)


  peacebuilding n. the action of advocating, encouraging, or bringing about peace; (in later use) spec. the implementation of measures intended to create or sustain peace in a region affected by war or other conflict, typically through support for economic, political, and social development.

1909   Advocate of Peace Aug.–Sept. 182/2   ‘Competitive shipbuilding’, not competitive peace building, is the prime cause for the enormous war-tax burdens placed upon the people.
1964   Amarillo (Texas) Daily News 17 Nov. 2/3   The U.N. work of peace-building through activities that promote economic and social progress, is no less important and pressing than diplomatic, political, and constabulary activities.
1998   C. Kemar Building Peace in Haiti i. 30   Peacebuilding, whether pre-conflict or postconflict, might not look very different from economic or political development.
2005   N.Z. Herald (Nexis) 27 May   To be successful, peacebuilding has to be a long-term commitment. Peacebuilding is about creating sustainable social, developmental and governmental structures.

1909—2005(Hide quotations)


  peace corps   n.  (a) a body of troops, etc., engaged in maintaining peace (now rare);  (b) (usually with capital initials), a U.S. governmental organization (created by the Peace Corps Act of 1961) which sends people to work as volunteers in developing countries; also in extended use.

1868   M. H. Smith Sunshine & Shadow in N.Y. 559   The citizens knew that the troops would do their duty, and that silent park of artillery was an efficient peace corps.
1904   Times 24 Sept. 4/3   The ancient ‘Peace Corps’ which was established by the Chinese and which protected the inhabitants against the raids of armed banditti.
1960   H. Humphrey in Congress. Rec. 15 June 12634/3   Mr. President, I introduce..a bill to establish a Peace Corps of American young men to assist the peoples of the under~developed areas of the world to learn the basic skills necessary to combat poverty, disease, illiteracy and hunger.
1967   Economist 2 Sept. 785/2   Japan's version of the peace corps is getting into its stride.
1992   Washington Post (Nexis) 25 Nov. a11   A committee of emergency care physicians announced it will form a ‘peace corps’ to rebuild the houses of the Turkish-Germans left homeless in Moelln.

1868—1992(Hide quotations)


  peace-crier   n.  (a) an officer who commands silence (obsolete);  (b) a person who advocates the making of peace.

a1425   Medulla Gram. (Stonyhurst) f. 60   Silenciarius, a pes cryare.
1840   Times 27 Nov. 3/4   If war had broken out, and the peace-criers and all began to shake, what a plight would England have been in!
1940   W. Frank Chart for Rough Water i. 20 (heading)    Our peace-criers do protest too much!

a1425—1940(Hide quotations)


  peace day   n.  (a) a day on which peace is achieved (following a war, etc.);  (b) (usually with capital initials) a day on which a particular peace treaty or armistice is commemorated, or on which efforts to secure world peace are celebrated.

1859   Times 25 Oct. 10/3   The thousand and one speeches of which the great monarch [sc. Napoleon III] has delivered himself on the same subject since the fatal peace-day of Villafranca.
1902   Westm. Gaz. 3 June 11/1   A fall in Kaffirs is the fact which fell to be recorded in the closing hours of Peace-Day.
1946   R. Capell Simiomata iii. 210   It is peace come before peace-day, reconstruction begun before the armistice.
1979   Summary World Broadcasts Pt. 4: Middle East & Afr. (B.B.C.) (Nexis) 3 Sept. ME/6209/C/1   In a written statement issued on the occasion of 1st September, Peace Day, Ozgur expressed his full support for the struggle being waged in Cyprus and in the world for peace.

1859—1979(Hide quotations)


  peace dividend   n. originally and chiefly U.S. a financial benefit from reduced defence spending; a sum of public money which may become available for other purposes when spending on defence is reduced.

1968   Fortune June 86/1   In Washington the magic phrase is ‘the Peace Dividend’... The fact is that peace dividends will neither materialize so quickly nor amount to so much as many people think.
1975   Forbes 15 Oct. 31   Remember the Vietnam ‘peace dividend’? There was no dividend. Even before the war ended, new government spending gobbled it up.
1995   Economist 14 Jan. 46/1   When the Soviet Union began to collapse in 1990, many people predicted a huge and long-awaited ‘peace dividend’.

1968—1995(Hide quotations)


  peace economy   n. an economy characteristic of peacetime, in which defence expenditure is relatively low and only a small part of the labour force is engaged in arms production, etc.

1905   A. V. Dicey Lect. Relation Law & Public Opinion in Eng. xii. 407   One example of this change in political opinion is to be found in the altered attitude of the public towards peace economy.
1910   W. James Mem. & Stud. (1911) xi. 283   The military party..says..that mankind cannot afford to adopt a peace-economy.
2003   State Jrnl.-Reg. (Springfield, Illinois) (Nexis) 5 Aug. 15   The project focuses on converting the war economy to a peace economy.

1905—2003(Hide quotations)


  peace establishment   n. the armed forces and military supplies maintained by a country in peacetime.

1766   in Rep. MSS Mrs. Stopford-Sackville 111 in Parl. Papers 1904 (Cd. 1892) XLVII. i   I see no end of the load imposed upon us, as our peace establishment is so far beyond the ordinary supplies.
1803   Edinb. Rev. 2 6   A peace-establishment of 500,000 men.
1963   C. J. Bartlett Great Brit. & Sea Power i. 14   Lord Liverpool pointed out to the Speaker of the House of Commons..that he expected the peace establishment of the armed forces in the future to cost some fifteen millions annually.

1766—1963(Hide quotations)


  peace game   n.  [after war-game n. at war n.1 Compounds 4] an exercise in the maintenance of international peace.

1922   Times 30 May 16/4   He had tried to explain..how..Germany was merely using America as a pawn in her premature peace game.
1968   Guardian 2 Dec. 9/8   I..believe..that..practical pacifism [is] a reasonable goal. I am currently engaged in talking to computers about this in an elaborate peace game.
2003   Chicago Tribune (Nexis) 26 Oct. 1   Palestinian and Israeli politicians had been secretly conducting peace games.

1922—2003(Hide quotations)


  peace-gaming   n.

1968   Economist 23 Nov. 72/2   More attention should be paid to using these techniques for what he calls ‘peace gaming’.
1991   Sunday Times (Nexis) 3 Feb.   The wild card in all this peace-gaming is the Arab-Israeli question.

1968—1991(Hide quotations)


  peace garden   n. originally U.S. a public garden created to commemorate the end of a war or to promote the ideal of peace (cf. peace park n.).

1918   Newark (Ohio) Advocate 11 Nov. 18/1   He is working out plans now for one of the biggest peace gardens that will be planted in Ohio this coming spring.
1997   M. Millar in S. Champion Disco Biscuits 82   A Brixton studio where the recording equipment was nicely complimented by a peace garden, and statues of Buddha.

1918—1997(Hide quotations)


  peace-guild   n. European History a guild established for the maintenance of peace; = frith-guild n. at frith n.1 Compounds.

1859   Hume's Hist. Eng. (new ed.) i. iv. 76   In London were several frith-gilds (peace-gilds) of different ranks; and in the time of Athelstane we find them forming an association for the purpose of mutual indemnity against robbery.
1913   Encycl. Relig. & Ethics VI. 215/1   The frith gild, or peace gild, so called, refers to an occasional feature of town life in Northern Europe from the 6th century.
1996   Speculum 71 348   The aims of neighboring Celtic kings with respect to their manipulation of ‘peace-guilds’ and ‘the rights of lordship’.

1859—1996(Hide quotations)


  peace lily   n. a tropical plant of the genus Spathiphyllum (family Araceae), several varieties of which are cultivated for their white spathes; also called peace plant.

1957   Times 21 Oct. 13/5   The ‘Peace Lily’.., with its dark green glossy leaves and white flowers shaped like miniature arum lilies, is an unusual plant.
1977   Times Herald Rec. (Middletown, N.Y.) 9 Jan. 119/3   Spathiphyllum is also known as ‘peace lily’. In only moderate light a mature spathiphyllum will send up a pure white inflorescence shaped like a cupped palm, giving the impression of the white flag of truce.
2001   Guardian 3 Nov. (Weekend Suppl.) 102/2   A plant that doesn't mind shade, such as a peace lily (Spathiphyllum), a painted drop-tongue..or an aspidistra.

1957—2001(Hide quotations)


  peace line   n. a line of demarcation drawn to avert conflict.

1957   Midwest Jrnl. Polit. Sci. 1 64   In June 1952 Korean Foreign Minister Pyun referred to the ‘Peace Line’. Thereafter, Koreans spoke of the Peace Line, while Japanese preferred the ‘Rhee Line’.
1969   Times 10 Sept. 1/1 (heading)    Army ‘peace line’ to replace barricades across Belfast.
2001   Chicago Tribune 9 Sept. i. 3/4   A giant metal fence, one of the many so-called ‘peace lines’ in Belfast, keeps the two communities apart.

1957—2001(Hide quotations)


  peace offensive   n. an active movement or campaign directed towards the achievement of peace.

1917   Times 30 Jan. 7/1   The unkind references to President Wilson in the above message..seem to indicate that the next great peace offensive may be made through Madrid.
1952   Ann. Reg. 1951 321   China..publicly supported the various manifestations of the Soviet ‘peace offensive’.
1992   A. W. Eckert Sorrow in our Heart vi. 406   The upshot was that the British were not talking up a peace offensive rather than aiding their red allies in a war.

1917—1992(Hide quotations)


  peace park   n. originally U.S. a public park created to commemorate the end of a war or to promote the ideal of peace (cf. earlier peace garden n.).

1924   Chron.-Telegram (Elyria, Ohio) 13 Sept. 8/2   Proposals have been made..to establish an ‘international peace park’ on the border of Turkey and Armenia.
2002   Nature Conservancy Summer 55/2   Some encompass ‘peace parks’ that were created when the region's civil wars and revolutions ended a decade ago.

1924—2002(Hide quotations)


peace-parted adj. poetic Obsolete (of a soul) that has departed in peace.

1604   W. Shakespeare Hamlet v. i. 233   To sing a Requiem and such rest..As to peace-parted soules.  View more context for this quotation
1867   Catholic World Nov. 172   Even the nameless, unmarked grave receives Some pledge from mortal love Unto peace-parted soul, we trust, with God above.

1604—1867(Hide quotations)


  Peace People   n. (with plural agreement) a peace movement established in Northern Ireland in 1976 to campaign for a peaceful resolution of the conflict there.

1976   Times 23 Aug. 2/4   A simple ‘Declaration of the Peace People’ was recited by the crowd, calling for [etc.].
1977   Time 22 Aug. 6/2   A year ago last week, Catholics Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan founded the so-called Peace People's Movement, which has attracted mass support from both Catholics and Protestants.
1996   C. Bateman Of Wee Sweetie Mice & Men xxi. 162   Worthy thoughts they are too, Bobby. We'll get you into the Peace People at this rate.

1976—1996(Hide quotations)


  peace pipe   n. a tobacco pipe traditionally smoked as a token of peace amongst North American Indians (cf. pipe of peace n. at pipe n.1 27b   and calumet n.); also figurative.

1779   G. R. Clark Campaign in Illinois (1869) 45   I told them I would defer smokeing the Peace Pipe until I heard that they had called in all their Warriors.
1876   G. Bancroft Hist. U.S. (rev. ed.) II. xxxiii. 330   Four old men advance..bearing the peace-pipe, brilliant with many colored plumes.
1918   W. B. Munro Crusaders of New France ix. 168   There were the usual pledges of friendship; the peace-pipe went its round, and the song of the calumet was sung.
1998   N.Y. Mag. 20 Apr. 10/2   Rudy Giuliani has no taste for the peace pipe. Last week's dinner invitation from David Dinkins isn't the only overture the mayor has nixed recently.

1779—1998(Hide quotations)


  peace plant   n.  (a) the olive (obsolete);  (b) = peace lily n.

1606   J. Sylvester tr. G. de S. Du Bartas Deuine Weekes & Wks. (new ed.) ii. iii. 99   The Peace-Plant Olive.
1987   Chicago Tribune (Nexis) 13 Feb. 51   Q—I have a broadleaf plant that occasionally has a big white flower that my florist said is a ‘Peace’ plant. None of my friends ever heard of a ‘Peace’ plant. Is there indeed such a plant? A—Your plant is Spathiphyllum, whose flowers resemble the calla lily.
2002   Rochester (N.Y.) Democrat & Chron. (Nexis) 29 June 3 c   You may want to try a peace plant between 30 and 36 inches high. A plant taller than the couch..would disrupt your view.

1606—2002(Hide quotations)


  peace pledge   n.  (a) English History = frank-pledge n. 1   (obsolete);  (b) an undertaking to abstain from fighting or to promote peace.

1857   J. Toulmin Smith Parish (new ed.) 123   All were annually thus personally bound in ‘peacepledge’.
1932   Times 13 June 12/2 (heading)    New peace pledge.
1935   H. R. L. Sheppard We say No p. x   To give Pacifist opinion a chance to crystallize, I launched my Peace Pledge.
1976   Daily Mirror 12 Nov. 2   Jack Jones yesterday declared: ‘There will be no dock strike.’ The Transport Union leader's peace pledge came amid dockland fury at [etc.].

1857—1976(Hide quotations)


  peace prize   n. an award presented in recognition of a contribution to the promotion of peace (chiefly with reference to the Nobel Prize).

1901   Times 2 Nov. 8/5   He [sc. Dr. Bernhardt Getz] was president of the Nobel Peace Prize Committee.
1902   Idler Nov. 244/2   The commission appointed to decide the peace prize.
1974   Encycl. Brit. Micropædia IV. 875/2   [Dag Hammarskjöld] was posthumously awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 1961.
1998   Independent 30 Nov. i. 13/8   Mohammed Yunus, founder of the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh, last week named winner of the Sydney Peace Prize.

1901—1998(Hide quotations)


  peace process   n. a series of initiatives, talks, etc., designed to bring about a negotiated settlement between warring or disputing parties.

1965   A. N. Holcombe in Internat. Organization 19 5   The institutional framework of the peace process, regarded as a way of dealing with international disputes.
1983   Times 12 Feb. 1/1   A lull in the peace process is expected over the weekend after the Acas conciliation team was stood down.
2000   Guardian (Electronic ed.) 3 Nov.   A meeting which could define the future of the entire Northern Ireland peace process.

1965—2000(Hide quotations)


  peace sign   n. a sign or gesture betokening peace; (in later use frequently) spec. a gesture made by holding up the hand with palm out-turned and the first two fingers extended in a V shape (= V-sign n. 2a).

1868   Harper's Mag. Feb. 302/2   One of Custer's scouts..rode out and made first ‘peace’, then ‘circle’ sign. The peace sign is made by riding toward the party with whom it is desired to communicate, making the horse take a zig-zag course.
1913   G. Stratton-Porter Laddie xii. 346   As they passed, every man of them made the peace sign and piled in a heap, venison, fish, and game.
1968   Los Angeles Times 21 Jan. 18/1   Belson was in the doorway, a thumbs-up gesture for the music and a peace sign to all.
2001   D. Mitchell Number 9 Dream 220   His dreadlocks were ginger, his sunglasses wraparound and his halo wonky... Seeing Mrs Comb, he made the peace sign. ‘Good day, ma'am.’

1868—2001(Hide quotations)


  peace studies   n. (frequently with singular agreement) the academic study of the causes of conflict and other matters relating to the establishment or maintenance of peace.

1903   Advocate of Peace Apr. 66/2   The International Institute of Peace Studies was opened at Monaco..in the presence of the principal members of the Monaco Academy.
1938   Coshocton (Ohio) Tribune 8 Apr. 2/3   Mrs. Roosevelt favors college courses on the causes of war, but does not favor ‘compulsory peace studies’.
1952   Hist. Church of Brethren in Indiana vi. 287   Miss Muir came to Manchester College in 1948 to head the department of Peace Studies, where she has awakened an interest in the problem of peace, and inspired a desire for service in many young minds.
1986   Christian Sci. Monitor (Nexis) 31 Jan. b8   Peace studies has..offered innovative approaches to the problems of monitoring and verifying compliance with arms control agreements.

1903—1986(Hide quotations)


  peace symbol   n. a symbol regarded as emblematic of peace; esp. the symbol (consisting of a circle bisected by a vertical diameter with an inverted V in the lower half) adopted by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and other movements.

1947   Times 4 Jan. 3/4   A triangular banner bearing the swastika, which, according to Hindu belief, is a peace symbol.
1968   R. J. Lifton Death in Life vii. 270   It was perhaps predictable that Hiroshima, after experiencing the world's first atomic bomb, would call upon the peace symbol as its rallying point for commemoration and rehabilitation.
1990   K. Vonnegut Hocus Pocus xx. 156   He was slight, and had long hair, and wore a peace symbol around his neck.

1947—1990(Hide quotations)


  peace talk   n. (a) conversation or discussion about peace or the ending of hostilities; an instance of this; (in plural) discussions or negotiations aimed at achieving peace in particular circumstances.

1789   J. Steele Let. 8 June in Papers (1924) I. 51   I only mean to hold a peace talk.
1852   J. Reynolds Pioneer Hist. Illinois 165   All the ‘peace talks’ ever presented to the red men, could not have kept them in peace, under these circumstances.
1918   W. Owen Let. 10 Oct. (1967) 583   Tonight I must stand before them [sc. my company] & promulgate this General Order: ‘Peace talk in any form is to cease in Fourth Army. All ranks are warned against the disturbing influence of dangerous peace talk.’
1994   Pacific Daily News (Agana, Guam) 18 Feb. 18/1   Zapatista guerrillas on Wednesday freed a former governor.., a move that could hasten peace talks.

1789—1994(Hide quotations)


  peace talker   n. a person who negotiates or advocates peace; a person who takes part in peace talks.

1892   Times 22 Jan. 15/2   The missionaries employed ‘peace-talkers’, who, for a consideration, tried to mollify the beggars and get them to abstain from molesting the mission.
1968   Punch 15 May 693/1   This is no surprise to the Korean peace talkers.
1989   Economist (Nexis) 14 Oct.   Only the PLO, said Mr Arafat this week, had the right to choose the Palestinians' peace talkers.

1892—1989(Hide quotations)


  peace-talking adj. and n.  (a) adj. that talks of peace;  (b) n. conversation about peace.

1849   J. A. Roebuck Let. 9 May (1897) xx. 223   He is under the control of Bright, who..chooses to be really warlike in favour of peace. Cobden is overborne by the pugnacious peace-talking Friend.
1917   D. H. Lawrence Look! We have come Through! 126   Everything was tainted with myself..nations, armies, war, peace-talking.
1990   Los Angeles Times (Nexis) 30 June b4/1   Tutu, the jovial, peace-talking Anglican archbishop who preceded political leader Mandela's visit by almost two months.
2002   Gold Coast Bull. (Austral.) (Nexis) 17 Sept. 19   America should try more peace talking and get Iraq to show them where they have weapons.

1849—2002(Hide quotations)


  peace-trained adj. (of a soldier, etc.) trained during peacetime.

a1640   P. Massinger Beleeue as you List (1976) iii. iii. 136   You keepe in pay..some peace traynd troopes.
1894   N. Amer. Rev. Dec. 731   There should be this reasonable number of peace-trained gunners.
1955   C. M. Green et al. Ordnance Dept. ix. 252   The peace-trained, battle-hardened core of the Wehrmacht languished in Allied prisoner-of-war enclosures.

a1640—1955(Hide quotations)


  peace walk   n.  (a) a walk in support of peace;  (b) rare (now historical) a slow dance introduced soon after the end of the First World War (1914–18).

1915   N.Y. Times 8 July 6/5 (headline)    Kansas City Women in Peace Walk.
1919   Times 16 May 9/1   The Peace Walk, which is danced to a slow waltz time.
1920   A. M. Cree Handbk. Ball-room Dancing 28   All other innovations of this season—the Spanish One-Step, Peace Walk, Tangle, etc., etc., are already dead.
1964   Times 24 Feb. 6/1   [He] was gaoled with other members of a Quebec-to-Cuba peace walk.
1998   Chicago Tribune (Nexis) 7 June (Metro) 2   Cook County Circuit Judge David Delgado braved a rainy Saturday to address his neighbors at the third annual Logan Square Peace Walk.

1915—1998(Hide quotations)


  peace warrant   n. a warrant for arrest issued by a justice of the peace.

1772   Edinb. Advertiser 30 June 3/1   His Excellency the governor..severly reprimanded the tyrant Montague, sent the man ashore, and desired he would take out a peace warrant against him.
1852   W. Cranch U.S. Circuit Court Reports, District of Columbia 1 39   On an affidavit stating that Joseph Bowling, a constable, had dismissed a peace warrant, and had received for his services $1.62, the court suspended him from office.
1943   F. Marvin & M. Lowenthal This was N.Y. xvi. 220   Alderman Wylley made the mistake of charging too much for a peace warrant and was fined £50 by the court of which he was a member.
2002   Halifax (Nova Scotia) Daily News (Nexis) 20 Sept. 16   Police have..gone after a peace warrant, hoping the courts will put some restrictions on his movements and whereabouts.

1772—2002(Hide quotations)


  peace work n.  [in quot. 1861, punningly after piecework n.]  (a) efforts to promote, preserve, or restore peace;  (b) the duties of an armed force during peacetime; (also) the usual peacetime labour of a workforce (opposed to war work).

1861   Punch 4 May 183   Well, Pam, of course I shall keep you on—but you must stick to peace work!
1901   Times 4 Oct. 10/6   There are born fighters and commanders who are intensely bored by peace work.
1910   T. Roosevelt in Amer. Jrnl. Internat. Law 4 702   The supreme difficulty in connection with developing the peace work of The Hague arises from the lack of any executive power.
1945   H. G. Hayes Spending, Saving & Employm. 91   The period that will begin some three, four, or five years after reconversion to peace work has been accomplished.
1994   Peace Mag. May 4/2   Ten years ago peace work consisted mainly of trying to prevent the acquisition or deployment of new weapon systems.

1861—1994(Hide quotations)


  peace worker   n.  (a) a member of a workforce during peacetime (rare);  (b) a person who works towards the promotion, preservation, or restoration of peace; spec. a pacifist campaigner or a member of a peacekeeping organization.

1886   Polit. Sci. Q. 1 352   The ranks of peace workers will have been depleted by enlistments in the army.
1899   New Eng. Mag. Aug. 666/1   A considerable number of the leading peace workers from different countries were present.
1941   P. Sargent Getting US into War 516   Representative Jeannette Rankin, veteran peace worker.
2001   Birmingham Post (Nexis) 23 July 14   A shipment of drugs arrives for a hospital and it becomes a subject for barter between the military and the UN peace workers who have brought it.

1886—2001(Hide quotations)


  peace-wright   n. rare a person who arranges a peace.

1718   N. Amhurst Convocation in Protestant Popery iv. 55   Here modern Peace-Wrights swell his fustian Strains.
1855   J. L. Motley Rise Dutch Republic III. vi. iii. 455   The peace-wrights of Cologne.

1718—1855(Hide quotations)




  ˈpeace-like adj.

1605   J. Sylvester tr. Ode on Astræa in tr. G. de S. Du Bartas Deuine Weekes & Wks. 613   O thou my Peace-like warre, and war-like Peace, So much the wounds that thou hast giuen me, please; That 'tis my best ease, neuer to haue ease.
1835   Southern Literary Messenger Mar. 388/1   We have the alternative of ‘a war-like peace, or a peace-like war’, and he wisely prefers the former.
1994   Jrnl. Amer. Hist. 81 265/2   The view that women are more ‘naturally’ peace-like and inherently maternal.

1605—1994(Hide quotations)


This entry has been updated (OED Third Edition, September 2005; most recently modified version published online March 2023).

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