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kind, adj. and adv.

Forms:  late Old English cynde, Middle English cunde, Middle English cuyndeste (superlative), Middle English keend, Middle English kend, Middle English kiynde, Middle English kund, Middle English kunde, Middle English kuynde, Middle English kynt, Middle English kyynd, Middle English–1500s kende, Middle English–1500s kynde, Middle English–1600s kinde, Middle English–1600s kynd, Middle English– kind, late Middle English knydyst (superlative, transmission error), 1600s cinde, 1800s kyind (English regional (Worcestershire)); also Scottish pre-1700 keind, pre-1700 keynd, pre-1700 kyind, 1900s kin'; Irish English (northern) 1900s– kine. (Show Less)
Frequency (in current use):  Show frequency band information
Origin: A variant or alteration of another lexical item. Etymon: i-cunde adj.
Etymology: Aphetic < i-cunde adj. (and thus cognate with kind n.).
With use as adverb compare kindly adv.
It is possible that some uses may show conversion directly from kind n.   (as i-cunde adj.   does from i-cunde n.).
For a possible, but doubtful, earlier attestation in sense A. 2   see quot. OE at kind n. 2   and discussion there. Compare also Old English uncynde  unkind adj.   (beside earlier ungecynde  : see un-i-cunde adj.).
In early use in senses A. 8a   and A. 8b   translating post-classical Latin grātus   pleasing, also in post-classical Latin in sense ‘gentle, kindly, benevolent’ (see grate adj.). In later use in sense A. 8b   with a stronger element of warmth or friendly affection, probably reinforced by association with sense A. 7b.
 A. adj.
 I. Natural, native, and related senses.

 a. In accordance with the natural or normal course of things; naturally or predictably arising or resulting from the circumstances. Cf. kindly adj. 1b, natural adj. 2. Obsolete.In quot. lOE   with complement of person in the dative; cf. i-cunde adj. 1a.

lOE   Prognostics (Hatton) (2007) 301   Gyf [him þince þæt] he gold findeð, god swefn þæt bið & yfel þemþe hit cynde [OE Tiber. gecynde] ne bið.
c1300   St. Michael (Laud) 563 in C. Horstmann Early S.-Eng. Legendary (1887) 315   Bi-tweone somer and wynter..þanne is þe þondre kuynde Inov.
a1325  (c1250)    Gen. & Exod. (1968) l. 78   His firme kinde dei..Of foure and twenti time rigt. Ðes frenkis men..It nemnen un iur natural.
a1413  (c1385)    G. Chaucer Troilus & Criseyde (Pierpont Morgan) (1881) ii. l. 970   Floures..Redressen hem a-yen þe sonne bryght And spreden on hire kynde cours by rowe.
a1450  (a1338)    R. Mannyng Chron. (Lamb.) (1887) i. 10610   Of hym more men fynde In farre bokes, als ys kynde, Þan we haue in þys lond.
c1540  (?a1400)    Gest Historiale Destr. Troy (2002) f. 135   So hit [sc. an embalming fluid] soght to the sydes & serchit within And keppit hom full cleane in hor kynd hew Þat as a lede vpon lyue to loke on þai ware.
1579   S. Gosson Ephemerides Phialo f. 2v   It is but kinde for a Cocks heade, to breede a Combe.
1601   P. Holland tr. Pliny Hist. World I. xvii. ii. 500   Trees with bearing of fruit, are drawne drie and have lost their naturall moisture, with shedding their leaves they bee poore and feeble; so that it is kind for them to be hungrie then.

lOE—1601(Hide quotations)


 b. Naturally suited to or required by a person, thing, activity, etc.; proper, fitting, appropriate. Cf. kindly adj. 1c. Frequently with for. Obsolete.

a1400  (a1325)    Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 9380   Til alking thing he gafe, þair kind scrud al for to haue.
a1413  (c1385)    G. Chaucer Troilus & Criseyde (Pierpont Morgan) (1882) iv. l. 768   How sholde a plaunte or lyues creature Lyue with-oute his kynde noriture?
a1475   Recipe Painting in Archæol. Jrnl. (1844) 1 154 (MED)   That the vessel stonde hote as in hors-dunge or in mattis or in good pese straw, but hors-dunge is the beste and most kinde therfor.
a1500   in G. Henslow Med. Wks. 14th Cent. (1899) 98 (MED)   Thenne must on..leten out the brised blod, and don In oynement that is kynde there-fore.
1578   T. White Serm. Pawles Crosse 3 Nov. 1577 72   If one punishmente will not doe, a kynder muste bee putte in proofe.
1663   J. Beal Let. in R. Boyle Wks. (1772) VI. 357   What hay is kindest for sheep.
1694   W. Westmacott Θεολοβοτονολογια 9   Cyder is a kind vehicle and proper menstruum for medical matters.

a1400—1694(Hide quotations)

 2. Naturally existing or present; inherent in the very nature of a person or thing; innate, inborn; not acquired or assumed. Cf. kindly adj. 1a, natural adj. 1.

 a. In predicative use, chiefly with anticipatory it as subject and infinitive as complement. In later use Irish English (northern) and rare.Modern use in Irish English probably shows a separate development from the phrase to be kind father for (see kind n. Phrases 4).

c1175   Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 8336   Herode king,..wass ifell mann inoh & wel itt wass himm kinde.
c1330  (?c1300)    Bevis of Hampton (Auch.) l. 2940   Kende hit is, wimman te be Schamfaste and ful of corteisie & hate dedes of fileinie.
c1450   W. Lichefeld Complaint of God (Lamb. 853) l. 614 in F. J. Furnivall Polit., Relig., & Love Poems (1903) 227   And how kinde and propir it is to þee..On hem to haue mercy and pitee.
1522   Worlde & Chylde (de Worde) (1909) sig. A.iiv   All rychelesnesse is kynde for the.
1902   S. Brenan in Eng. Dial. Dict. III. 441/2   [Antrim] It's kind for him to be a good Nationalist.
1996   C. I. Macafee Conc. Ulster Dict. at Kind   It's kind of a kitten to kill a mouse.

c1175—1996(Hide quotations)


b. attributive, chiefly with reference to innate mental faculties, as kind wit, kind knowing, etc. Obsolete.

c1390  (a1376)    W. Langland Piers Plowman (Vernon) (1867) A. i. l. 127   ‘Yit haue I no kuynde knowing,’ quod I, ‘þou most teche me betere’.
c1400  (c1378)    W. Langland Piers Plowman (Laud 581) (1869) B. xii. l. 130 (MED)   Kynde witte cometh of alkynnes siȝtes Of bryddes and of bestes, of tastes of treuthe and of deceytes.
a1500   Eng. Conquest Ireland (Rawl.) (1896) 137 (MED)   Thay, by kynde falsnes and vnstabilnes that in ham is, lytel tell of othys and of mansynge.
1548   N. Lesse tr. F. Lambert Minde & Iudgem. ii. xiii. f. xlvi   We wyl that the scripture be taken in hys owne kynde & naturall meanynge.

c1390—1548(Hide quotations)


 a. Of a person: having a claim or right by birth or inheritance; legitimately entitled to a property, position, or status; lawful, rightful. Cf. kindly adj. 2a. Obsolete.

c1300   St. Wulstan (Laud) l. 106 in C. Horstmann Early S.-Eng. Legendary (1887) 74 (MED)   Seint wolston..was þo þe cuyndeste [a1325 Corpus Cambr. kundeste, ?a1425 Julius kendest] englische man þat was of enie manhede.
c1325  (c1300)    Chron. Robert of Gloucester (Calig.) 6429   Hii bitoke þe qued hor soule þe kunde eirs to bitraye.
c1390   Talkyng of Love of God (Vernon) (1950) 46 (MED)   Þat on lepi kuynde kyng coround in heuene.
a1450   MS Bodl. 779 in Archiv f. das Studium der Neueren Sprachen (1889) 82 373 (MED)   Oswald..king þey made þo, for oswin, here kende lord, of londe was I-go.
a1500  (?c1450)    Bone Florence (1976) l. 1257   And crowne Mylys my brodur..For knydyst [read kyndyst] heyre ys hee.

c1300—a1500(Hide quotations)


 b. Belonging to a person by right of birth or inheritance; legitimately claimed or held; lawful, rightful. Cf. kindly adj. 3. Obsolete (Scottish in later use).In quot. 1702: designating a lease of land on favourable terms because of the long continued possession of that land by the tenant's family or ancestors; cf. kindly adj. 4.

c1325  (c1300)    Chron. Robert of Gloucester (Calig.) l. 4822 (MED)   Þe folc of englisse & saxons hor lond hom bi nome, & hor kunde eritage mid trayson & suikedome.
c1330  (?c1300)    Bevis of Hampton (Auch.) 2940   Ȝif ich miȝte wiþ eni ginne Me kende eritage to winne.
a1387   J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden Polychron. (St. John's Cambr.) (1882) VIII. 35 (MED)   Why art þu come to desherite me of my ryȝt of my kynde burþe [?a1475 anon. tr. naturalle enheritaunce; L. jure..nativo]?
?a1425  (a1415)    Lanterne of Liȝt (Harl.) (1917) 118 (MED)   Nabath seide he wolde not chaunge, ne selle his kynde eritage.
1488  (c1478)    Hary Actis & Deidis Schir William Wallace (Adv.) (1968–9) xi. l. 1069   And tak the croun, till ws It war kyndar, To bruk for ay, or fals Eduuard it war.
1570   in J. Cranstoun Satirical Poems Reformation (1891) I. xiii. 130   Ȝe..Baneist his Gudschir from his kynde heritage.
1702   T. Morer Short Acct. Scotl. 4   Being without those long kind Leases the Tenants in England have.

c1325—1702(Hide quotations)


a. Of one's country, region, etc.: that is the place of a person's birth and early life; native. Also: designating one's native language or mother tongue. Cf. native adj. 9a, 10a. Obsolete.In quot. 1849   probably a deliberate archaism.

a1325  (c1250)    Gen. & Exod. (1968) l. 1279   [It] was nogt is kinde lond.
a1400  (a1325)    Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 13258 (MED)   To nazareth he went again Vntil his aun kind contre.
c1425  (c1300)    Chron. Robert of Gloucester (Harl.) 364   Ich wene þer ne be man in world contreyes none, þat ne holdeþ to her kunde [c1325 Calig. owe, a1400 Trin. Cambr. kunde, ?a1425 Digby kynde] speche, bote Engelond one.
a1500   Eng. Conquest Ireland (Rawl.) (1896) 7 (MED)   Man thynkyth no Place so Myrry lyghtly as in his Kynd Place.
1513   G. Douglas tr. Virgil Æneid v. xiii. 82   As thi kind ground and cuntre naturale.
?1614   G. Chapman tr. Homer Odysses ii. 28   Royall Vlysses, farre from the embrace Of his kind countrie; in a land vnknowne.
1849   Anglo-Saxon 3 10   In their own kind language the poor have the Gospel of Christ preached to them.

a1325—1849(Hide quotations)


 b. Of a person or animal: native or indigenous to a country or region. Also with to. Cf. native adj. 11. Now Shetland and rare.The use in Shetland probably arises independently by analogy with kindly (see kindly adj. 3b). Sc. National Dict. records the sense as still in use in Shetland in 1960.

c1325  (c1300)    Chron. Robert of Gloucester (Calig.) 851   Many kundemen of þis lond Mid king leir hulde also.
c1325  (c1300)    Chron. Robert of Gloucester (Calig.) 937   þe kunde volc of þe lond adde to hom onde.
1487  (a1380)    J. Barbour Bruce (St. John's Cambr.) ix. 448   Thai war kynde [1489 Adv. kynd] to the cuntre.
1931   J. R. Nicolson Shetland Incidents & Tales 17   The statement was made that there was two distinct species in Shetland. One was known as the ‘kind sheep’.

c1325—1931(Hide quotations)


c. Having a specified character by nature or from birth; (typically in depreciative contexts) fully warranting a particular description or label by one's very nature; complete, utter. Cf. born adj. 8. Obsolete.

a1375  (c1350)    William of Palerne (1867) l. 513   Þouȝh he were komen of no ken, but of kende cherls.
c1450   W. Lichefeld Complaint of God (Lamb. 853) l. 380 in F. J. Furnivall Polit., Relig., & Love Poems (1903) 215 (MED)   But y wole vse wrenchis & wilis Þe comoun uoice is, y schal not þrijf; Summe at me mowis, summe at me smylis, And counten me but a kynde caitif.
1484   W. Caxton tr. Subtyl Historyes & Fables Esope v. v. f. lxxxj   Suche supposeth to be moche wyse, whiche is a kynd and a very foole.
1589   R. Greene Menaphon sig. G3v   I thought no lesse..that you would proue such a kinde kistrell.
c1600  (?c1395)    Pierce Ploughman's Crede (Trin. Cambr. R.3.15) (1873) l. 489 (MED)   Crist calde hem him-self kynde ypocrites.

a1375—c1600(Hide quotations)


5. Related by kinship; of one's own kin or people. Obsolete.

a1325  (c1250)    Gen. & Exod. (1968) l. 2276   Al ðo briðere..bedden him riche present..And he leuelike it under-stod, For alle he weren of kinde blod.
c1325  (c1300)    Chron. Robert of Gloucester (Calig.) 8240   Þe sarazins..wende toward antioche, to helpe hor kunde blod.
c1400   Life St. Anne (Minn.) (1928) l. 1579 (MED)   Þai had na gude wyll thyne, So þai wer kynde þer with no man.
a1470   T. Malory Morte Darthur (Winch. Coll. 13) (1990) I. 188   And thus was the Empyre kepte be my kynde elders.
1516   in J. Imrie et al. Burgh Court Bk. Selkirk (1960) 39   The said William sal tak Johne Champnaye..to prentes..doand to him favourablie as suld be done to an prentes or a kynd frend.

a1325—1516(Hide quotations)

 II. Good, with regard to nature, character, or quality.
 6. Of high quality.

a. Of a person's birth: of high social rank; distinguished, noble. of kind blood: of noble birth, well-born. Cf. gentle adj. 1b. Obsolete.

c1300   St. Margarete (Harl.) 2 in O. Cockayne Seinte Marherete (1866) 24   Ibore heo was in Antioche, icome of cunde blod.
a1325  (c1250)    Gen. & Exod. (1968) l. 1452   Ysaac he let al his god, For he was bi-geten of kinde blod.

c1300—a1325(Hide quotations)


b. Of a person: of noble birth; having the personal qualities associated with, or befitting a person of, noble birth; noble in manners or conduct; spec.  (a) generous, gracious, courteous; = gentle adj. 3a;  (b) displaying knightly qualities; chivalrous; brave, courageous. Obsolete.

c1330  (?a1300)    Arthour & Merlin (Auch.) (1973) l. 5110 (MED)   We were coward & vnhende, Bot we holpen þo children kende.
a1350   in G. L. Brook Harley Lyrics (1968) 36 (MED)   Cunde comely ase a knyht..in vch an hyrd þyn aþel ys hyht.
c1390   in C. Horstmann Minor Poems Vernon MS (1892) i. 135   Heil quene corteis, comely, and kynde.
c1450  (?a1400)    Wars Alexander (Ashm.) l. 2459 (MED)   Þai crosse ouir toward þe kyng as kyndmen [a1500 Trin. Dublin kene men] suld.
1488  (c1478)    Hary Actis & Deidis Schir William Wallace (Adv.) (1968–9) i. l. 184   For he was wys, rycht worthy, wicht and kynd.
a1522   G. Douglas in tr. Virgil Æneid (1957) i. Prol. 96   Quha mycht gaynsay a lord so gentill and kynd.
1578   J. Rolland Seuin Seages 3   He was courtes, cumlie and richt kynd.

c1330—1578(Hide quotations)


 c. Of a good or high quality; spec.  (a) (of a crop, vegetation, etc.) thriving, healthy, in good condition;  (b) (of an animal) well-bred; thoroughbred (obsolete);  (c) (of land, soil, etc.) fertile; = good adj. 2a. Cf. kindly adj. 8. Now rare (chiefly English regional in later use).

c1400  (?a1387)    W. Langland Piers Plowman (Huntington HM 137) (1873) C. iii. l. 29   No [emended in ed. to ne] on croked kene þorne kynde fygys wexe.
1579   S. Gosson Schoole of Abuse f. 41v   The kindest Mastife, when he is clapped on the back, fighteth best.
1587   T. Churchyard Worthines of Wales sig. M3v   Good welsh Nagges, that are of kindest race: With goodly nowt, both fat and bigge with bone.
1603   P. Holland tr. Plutarch Morals 163   Signes, not of bad ground, but rather of a kinde and fat soile.
a1656   J. Hales Golden Remains (1659) i. 182   As men graffe Apples and kind fruits upon Thornes.
1696   W. Nicholls Conf. with Theist 55   Tillage does macerate and break the Stony Earth again into a fine and kind soil, which is fit for vegetation.
1756   P. Browne Civil & Nat. Hist. Jamaica ii. ii. 136   It is a hardy and kind pasturage.
1893   J. Salisbury Gloss. Words S.E. Worcs. at Kyind   We shaunt 'ave many curran's this year, but the plums seems very kyind.
1895   Freeman's Jrnl. (Dublin) 28 Mar. 2/7   Mr Fitzgerald said the valuers described this as ‘fairly kind sheep pasture’.
1911   C. G. Hopins Story of Soil viii. 48   This is a kind soil.
1957   H. Hall Parish's Dict. Sussex Dial. (new ed.) 70/1   Kind, said of land: good.

c1400—1957(Hide quotations)


a. Having or showing a normal, natural affection for one's family and close relatives; well-disposed towards one's kin. Also figurative. Obsolete.

c1325  (c1300)    Chron. Robert of Gloucester (Calig.) 724   Þine sostren ssolleþ abbe al, vor hor herte is so kunde, & þou ssalt vor þin vnkundhede be out of al min munde.
a1393   J. Gower Confessio Amantis (Fairf.) v. l. 5725 (MED)   As sche that was gentil and kinde, In worschipe of hir Sostres mynde, Sche made a riche enterement.
a1450  (c1400–25)    H. Legat Serm. Passion in D. M. Grisdale 3 Middle Eng. Serm. (1939) 12 (MED)   I lullid þe in þi cradil..& kissid þi lippus..as a kinde modur schulde.
a1470   T. Malory Morte Darthur (Winch. Coll. 13) (1990) I. 157   ‘Well,’ seyde the kyng, ‘she is a kynde sister! I shall so be avengid on hit and I lyve that all crystendom shall speke of hit.’
c1475  (▸1392)    Surg. Treat. in MS Wellcome 564 f. 35 (MED)   We fynden mannes herte kynde to hise lungis, for þe herte ȝeueþ to þe nutriment of þe lungis of þe same blood þat it is norischid wiþ.

c1325—c1475(Hide quotations)


 b. gen. Affectionate, loving, fond; (English regional (northern)) intimate, close. Now somewhat archaic, esp. in kind embrace.Many examples of kind embrace from the 20th cent. onwards probably show reinterpretation of the phrase as showing sense A. 11.

a1375  (c1350)    William of Palerne (1867) l. 3474   Wiþ clipping & kessing & alle kinde dedus.
c1425   J. Lydgate Troyyes Bk. (Augustus A.iv) ii. l. 4028 (MED)   I purpose..To wedde ȝou and ben ȝour trew man..And be to ȝou as lowly & as kynde..Þan whilom was ȝoure Menelaus.
1526   W. Bonde Pylgrimage of Perfection i. sig. Biiiv   If they had ben kynde & louyng to god.
?1594   H. Constable Diana (new ed.) viii. i. sig. F4   Women are kind by kind, but coy by fashion.
1626   J. Gresham tr. Ovid Picture of Incest 22   Many nights exchange Of kind embrace betwixt these louers strange.
1709   A. Pope Autumn in Poet. Misc.: 6th Pt. vi. 741   Do Lovers dream, or is my Shepherd kind?
1735   A. Pope Of Char. of Women 9   A Spark too fickle, or a Spouse too kind.
1825   J. T. Brockett Gloss. North Country Words   Kind, intimate—not kind, at enmity.
1854   M. Davis & J. L. Scott Scenes beyond Grave iii. 28   All eager to greet me, and receive me to their kind embrace.
1870   Ld. Tennyson Window 184   Stiles where we stay'd to be kind, Meadows in which we met.
1928   A. E. Pease Dict. Dial. N. Riding Yorks. 70/2   He's gettin ower kind with oor Polly.
2015   Times-Tribune (Scranton, Pa.) (Nexis) 18 Oct.   He left St. Francis Commons with a clean shave, haircut and a kind embrace.

a1375—2015(Hide quotations)


c. euphemistic. Designating a woman who is available to be a person's mistress, lover, or sexual partner. Chiefly in kind girl. Obsolete.

1620   S. Rowlands Night-raven sig. D2v   I note the places of polluted sinne Where your kind wenches and their bawds put in.
1674   T. Duffett Span. Rogue Prol. sig. a3v   Tell me Gallants! which would you like best? The tedious Fool that stayes 'till she is drest, Or the kind Girl, who when the hour is come, Slips on the Morning Gown, and steals from home?
1698   J. Fryer New Acct. E.-India & Persia 110   The next Moon their Women flock to the Sacred Wells; where, they say, it is not difficult to persuade them to be kind.
1712   J. Addison Spectator No. 486. ¶1   I am very particularly acquainted with one who is under entire Submission to a kind Girl, as he calls her... No longer than Tuesday last he took me with him to visit his Mistress.
1746   W. Hyland Ship-wreck v. 27   One kind Girl is worth a Dozen Wives—Matrimony is worse than the Galleys.
1778   C. Dibdin Poor Vulcan ii. ii. 32   Let constant lovers at the feet Of pale-fac'd wenches, sigh and pine, For me, the first kind girl I meet Shall be my toast.

1620—1778(Hide quotations)


 a. Pleasant, agreeable, acceptable. Cf. kindly adj. 7. Obsolete.

a1398   J. Trevisa tr. Bartholomaeus Anglicus De Proprietatibus Rerum (BL Add. 27944) (1975) II. xvii. xcvii. 988   Þis flex is nouȝt most strong but..þerof is kynde [L. gratissimæ] vestymentes ymade for prestes.
a1400  (a1325)    Cursor Mundi (Trin. Cambr.) l. 6509   Þis moyses was dere & kynde To god.
a1425  (a1400)    Northern Pauline Epist. (1916) Coloss. iii. 15 (MED)   Þe pees of crist, ioye it in ȝoure hertis..and be ȝee kynde [L. grati] to god.
1592   R. Greene Quip for Vpstart Courtier sig. B2v   Hard by grew the true louers primrose, whose kind sauour wisheth men to bee faithfull and women courteous.
1603   P. Holland tr. Plutarch Morals 657   So it is with the odours of flowers, which are very sweet to smell unto a good way off; whereas if a man come over-neere unto them, they yeeld nothing so kinde and pleasant a sent.
1664   P. D. C. tr. N. Le Fèvre Compend. Body Chymistry II. x. 308   This volatile salt and spirit are more subtile and penetrating, and of a kinder taste and smell then those that have been extracted out of plain Urine.
1706   N. Rowe Ulysses i. i. 98   I have the kindest Sounds to bless your Ear with.
1774   O. Goldsmith Hist. Earth I. 32   Though at a kinder distance.

a1398—1774(Hide quotations)


 b. Grateful, appreciative. Obsolete (English regional in later use).

a1475   tr. Thomas à Kempis De Imitatione Christi (Cambr. Gg.1.16) (1893) 82 (MED)   Þou shuldest know my love, and be ever kynde [L. gratus] to my benefaytes.
a1500   tr. Thomas à Kempis De Imitatione Christi (Trin. Dublin) (1893) 54   Be kynde þerfore for a litel þinge, & þou shalt be worþi to take gretter.
?1531   R. Whitford tr. Folowing of Christe ii. x. f. liii   If a man desyre to holde the grace of god be he kinde and thankfull for suche grace as he hathe receyued.
1563   2nd Tome Homelyes Time of Prayer i, in J. Griffiths Two Bks. Homilies (1859) ii. 339   He should declare himself thankful and kind, for all those benefits.
1612   B. Jonson Alchemist v. iv. sig. M   Sub. Why doe you not thanke her Grace? Dap. I cannot speake, for Ioy. Sub. See, the kinde wretch!  View more context for this quotation
1700   J. Treffry Poems 56   I should have been kind, And grateful, for your former Courtesies.
1877   E. Peacock Gloss. Words Manley & Corringham, Lincs. (at cited word)   I'm very kind to Mrs...'cause she sent me them coals i' th' winter.

a1475—1877(Hide quotations)


 a. Of a substance or material: soft, yielding, and easy to work or manipulate. Obsolete (English regional in later use).

1747   W. Hooson Miners Dict. sig. Uijb   We drive at the Vein Head in the first Place, because there it is likely that the Vein may be the most Kind or Leppey.
1770   C. Varlo New Syst. Husbandry III. xvi. 248   It is so absolutely necessary for the good of the flax to preserve this oily kind nature in it, in order to keep it from rotting, and make it kind, soft, and silky.
1831   J. Holland Treat. Manuf. Metal I. 243   To distinguish between hard and kind steel, that is, between steel that has been more or less carbonated.
1883   W. S. Gresley Gloss. Terms Coal Mining 147   Kind generally signifies tender, soft, or easy to work.

1747—1883(Hide quotations)


 b. English regional. Of hair, fur, etc.: soft and sleek to the touch. Obsolete.

1828   W. Carr Dial. Craven (ed. 2)    Kind, soft. ‘As kind as a glove.’ Kind-harled, soft-haired.
1848   Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 9 ii. 429   Breeders..are now fully alive to the importance of kind hair and good flesh in a feeding beast.
1886   W. Barnes Gloss. Dorset Dial.   Kind, sleek, as spoken of fur.

1828—1886(Hide quotations)

 III. Having a friendly, benevolent, or considerate disposition, and related senses.Now the usual use; senses A. 10, A. 11, A. 12 are the senses commonly found in standard modern English.

 a. Having or showing a benevolent, friendly, or warm-hearted nature or disposition; ready to assist, or show consideration for, others; sympathetic, obliging, considerate.

a1333   in C. Brown Relig. Lyrics 14th Cent. (1924) 19   Helpe he wole ich wot, Vor loue þe chartre wrot... He þat ys so cunde, Þys euer haueth in munde.
a1375  (c1350)    William of Palerne (1867) l. 380 (MED)   Sche wold haue sleie hire-self..ne hade þe kind kouherde conforted here þe betere.
c1405  (c1395)    G. Chaucer Clerk's Tale (Hengwrt) (2003) l. 852   How gentil and how kynde Ye semed, by your speche, and your visage.
1536   R. Morison Lamentation Seditious Rebellyon sig. A.iv   Alas what vnkyndnes may so kynde and so louynge a prince recken in these traytours?
1567   Compend. Bk. Godly Songs (1897) 19   We thank our God baith kynde and liberall.
a1616   W. Shakespeare Tempest (1623) iii. iii. 20   Giue vs kind keepers, heauens.  View more context for this quotation
1649   O. Cromwell Let. 25 Nov. in Writings & Speeches (1939) (modernized text) II. 173   If the Father..be so kind, why should there be such jarrings and heart-burnings amongst the children?
1693   J. Kirkwood New Family-bk. (ed. 2) i. 47   What is there more common, than to see those neglected and slighted, who have been very kind and serviceable?
a1742   T. Story Jrnl. of Life (1747) 447   They did no personal Harm to any of us, but were very kind all along as we sailed to Port-a-pee.
1782   W. Cowper Truth in Poems 86   Some mansion..By some kind hospitable heart possess'd.
1841   J. R. Hope-Scott in R. Ornsby Mem. J. R. Hope-Scott (1884) II. 3   Your speedy reply and return of my proofs was very kind.
1849   T. B. Macaulay Hist. Eng. I. iii. 424   We have..become, not only a wiser, but also a kinder people.
1890   Cent. Mag. Sept. 770/1   His good temper and kind heart.
1952   D. Thomas Let. 21 Nov. (1987) 847   Thank you both, a lot, I loved being there, you were awfully kind.
2003   C. Birch Turn again Home vi. 80   Walter's not all bad. He's a kind man.

a1333—2003(Hide quotations)


 b. With to. Behaving in a benevolent, friendly, or warm-hearted manner towards a particular person, group, or animal; considerate or helpful to.In quot. c1350   with dative personal pronoun (rather than to).

c1350  (a1333)    William of Shoreham Poems (1902) 86   Ha wole be þe so kende, He wole be fo to þyne fon, And frend to þyne frende.
c1390  (a1376)    W. Langland Piers Plowman (Vernon) (1867) A. xi. l. 243   Þat is, iche cristene man be kynde to oþer, And siþen hem to helpe.
c1450   W. Lichefeld Complaint of God (Lamb. 853) l. 491 in F. J. Furnivall Polit., Relig., & Love Poems (1903) 221   Euere þe kyndir to me þou art, Þe more vnkyndir am y agayn.
1528   W. Tyndale Obed. Christen Man f. cxvv   A wife after so many and oft pylgremages be moare chast, moare obediente vnto hyr husbande, morekynde to hyr maydes and other servauntes.
1570   T. North tr. A. F. Doni Morall Philos. Prol. f. 5   Oh this man is to kinde to mee, that to couer mine leaueth his owne heape bare.
1600   W. Shakespeare Midsummer Night's Dream iii. i. 156   Be kinde and curteous to this gentleman..Feede him with Apricocks, and Dewberries.  View more context for this quotation
1693   N. Staphorst tr. L. Rauwolf Trav. Eastern Countries ii. x, in J. Ray Coll. Curious Trav. I. 214   These are good-hearted Christians, which have great Compassion on their Fellow-Christians, and love to entertain and to be kind to Strangers.
1707   Lady M. W. Montagu Let. 2 May (1965) I. 3   I hope you intend to be kinder to me this Summer than you was the last.
1807   G. Crabbe Parish Reg. iii, in Poems 128   Kind to the Poor, and, ah! most kind to me.
1898   Cosmopolitan June 186/1   The agent of the mills was a single man, keen and business-like, but quietly kind to the people under his charge.
1928   N. Coward Mad about You in B. Day N. Coward: Compl. Lyrics (1998) 93/3   When you are inclined to be Encouraging and kind to me I simply walk on air.
2008   Y. Jerrold Case of Wild Justice? xiv. 85   What a pity Billy did not take after his father who was always kind to animals.

c1350—2008(Hide quotations)


 11. Of a comment or action: arising from or indicative of a friendly, benevolent, or considerate disposition; expressing generous, caring, or sympathetic thoughts or feelings.

a1375  (c1350)    William of Palerne (1867) l. 1518 (MED)   Alisandrine..comfort hire as sche couþe wiþ alle kinde speches.
a1470   T. Malory Morte Darthur (Winch. Coll. 13) (1990) I. 357 (MED)   Eythir of them gaff other the pryse of the batayle, and there were many kynde wordys betwene them.
c1540  (?a1400)    Gest Historiale Destr. Troy (2002) f. 35v   Myche comforth he caght of þaire kynd speche.
1551   R. Crowley Pleasure & Payne sig. Av   You..gaue me wordis curteyse and kynde.
1591   Advt. from Britany & Low Countries f. 8   My Lord Generall was solempnly inuited..to visite their Cittie, and the thirde day after was receyued into the same with all those testimonies that might assure a most kinde and frendly welcome.
1636   R. Chamberlain Bk. Bulls 48   One being pray'd to sit down to dinner said, I thanke you for your kind invitation, but I can eat nothing.
1670   Earl of Anglesey in Hist. MSS Comm.: 12th Rep.: App. Pt. V: MSS Duke of Rutland (1889) 15 in Parl. Papers (C. 5889-II) XLIV. 393   My sonne is at Newmarket..or else would acknowledge your Ladyship's kind mention of him.
1719   James (the Pretender) Let. in Pearson's 76th Catal. (1894) 33   Pray make him my kind compliments.
1779   S. Johnson Milton in Pref. Wks. Eng. Poets II. 119   Paradise Lost broke into open view with sufficient security of kind reception.
1846   Tennyson in Mem. (1897) 239   Your kind letter gave me very sincere pleasure.
1917   P. G. Wodehouse in Vanity Fair Mar. 39/1   I thank Mr. Sherwin for those kind words.
1977   A. J. P. Taylor Let. 24 Nov. in Lett. to Eva (1991) 371   I am inconsiderate. I don't spontaneously think of kind actions.
2001   Big Issue 20 Aug. 43/1   He always has a kind word to say to people.

a1375—2001(Hide quotations)

 12. figurative.

 a. Esp. with reference to the weather or climate: beneficial, favourable, helpful. Also with to.

a1616   W. Shakespeare Antony & Cleopatra (1623) iii. ii. 40   The Elements be kind to thee.  View more context for this quotation
1637   J. Milton Comus 7   Such cooling fruit As the kind hospitable woods provide.
1676   J. Dryden Aureng-Zebe iii. 45   Your kinder Stars a nobler choice have given.
1713   A. Pope Windsor-Forest 3   In vain kind Seasons swell'd the teeming Grain.
1841   C. Dickens Old Curiosity Shop i. i. 37   Night is kinder in this respect than day.
1874   Atlantic Monthly Feb. 186/2   The most beautiful and blooming place in the world, with a soil and climate kind to the husbandman.
1982   Backpacker Mar. 26/2   Water? There should be plenty. In the canyon country April is the kindest month.
2012   Sun (Nexis) 31 Dec. 11   Let's hope the Scottish weather is kind to us for once.

a1616—2012(Hide quotations)


 b. Of a thing (originally and esp. a commercial product): gentle with regard to action or impact; unlikely to cause harm or damage to someone or something; not harsh.

1904   Football Echo 30 Apr. 1 (advt.)    Fels-Naptha [soap] is kind to skin and clothes.
1937   Life 26 July 12/4 (advt.)    La Cross Glycerated Nail Polish Remover contains no acetone and is kind to brittle nails.
1954   Househ. Guide & Almanac (News of World) 105/2 (advt.)    Persil is kind to all your wash—whites, woollens, coloureds, fine things.
1981   New Scientist 10 Sept. 792/1   Methanol also appears to be kinder to the engine [than petrol].
2008   Independent on Sunday 6 Apr. 14/2   ‘Boiling’ bodies down to a handful of dust... can at least claim to be kinder to the planet than some traditional ways of disposing of the dead.

1904—2008(Hide quotations)


13. Favourably disposed to; bearing good will to. Obsolete.

1648   Back-blow to Major Huntington 7   Now what is it that troubles this Major in all this? Is it because these gentlemen were so kinde to the King?
1651   T. Hobbes Leviathan ii. xviii. 90   The ambition of some, that are kinder to the goverment of an Assembly, whereof they may hope to participate, than of Monarchy, which they despair to enjoy.
1680   W. Temple Ess. Advancem. Trade Ireland in Wks. (1731) I. 125   It is..little to be hoped, that a Breach with Spain should make us any kinder to the War than we were.
1708   W. Trumbull Let. 9 Apr. in A. Pope Corr. (1956) I. 45   I ought to suspect my self, by reason of the great affection I have for you, which might give too much biass, to be kind to every thing that comes from you.

1648—1708(Hide quotations)

 B. adv.

1. Naturally, by nature; = kindly adv. 1a. Obsolete.

a1325  (c1250)    Gen. & Exod. (1968) l. 1999   Ioseph..wurð ðo so kinde cold, To don swilc dede adde he no wold.
c1330   Sir Degare (Auch.) l. 161 in W. H. French & C. B. Hale Middle Eng. Metrical Romances (1930) 291 (MED)   A! gentil maiden kinde icoren, Help me, oþer ich am forloren!

a1325—c1330(Hide quotations)


 2. In a kind manner; with benevolence or good nature; courteously; = kindly adv. 4a. Now colloquial or nonstandard.

1592   G. Babington Certaine Comfortable Notes Genesis (xxxvii.) f. 149   They comfort their father and yet cause his wo, much like our Usurers that speake so kinde, and cut so deepe into a mans estate till he be vndone.
1654   W. Blake Embassage from Kings of East 59   Speak very kind, d'off thy hat to any.
1725   A. Ramsay Gentle Shepherd i. i   Ye..wha have sae kind Redd up my ravel'd doubts.
1775   R. B. Sheridan Songs Duenna iii. 17   Those lips that spoke so kind!
1800   E. Hervey Mourtray Family III. 102   All this would be mighty well..if Lady C. behaved kind and tenderly to you.
1850   C. Dickens David Copperfield xlii. 436   ‘How kind he puts it!’ said Uriah.
1901   C. T. Brady Bishop xii. in Harper's Mag. Jan. 238/2   Pete, he's my man. I treated him kind; I took him in; an' in return he's done Rena an' the kid to death.
2011   M. Anthony Same, Same but Different 16   Speak kind to your sister or brother, and others will speak kind to you.

1592—2011(Hide quotations)



 P1. to be so kind as (also kind enough) to do something :  (a) to be well-disposed or benevolent enough to do the thing stated;  (b) (used in making a polite or courteous request) to be obliging enough to do the favour solicited. Now formal or somewhat archaic, except in ironic use.Cf. to be good enough (also so good as) to at good adj., n., adv., and int. Phrases 5c.

1532   J. Frith Myrrour to know Thy Selfe iii, in W. Tyndale et al. Wks. (1573) ii. 90/2   Yet was I neuer so kynde as to thancke him [sc. God] that he had not made me so vile a creature [as a toad].
a1652   R. Brome Queenes Exchange (1657) iv. i. F4v2   Osr. Will you be so kind as to see my Trial? Mild. Indeed I must not leave you.
1781   T. Jefferson Let. 3 Feb. in Papers (1951) IV. 513   Be kind enough to send some Paper, wax, Inkpowder and wafers.
1816   J. Austen Emma II. i. 5   Mrs. Cole was so kind as to sit some time with us, talking of Jane.
1869   Eng. Mech. 12 Nov. 217/3   Will any of your numerous readers be kind enough to inform me of the best plan of gaiting a pair of cart wheels?
1953   A. Huxley Let. 19 July (1969) 679   Your publishers told me some time ago that they would send me proofs... Would you be kind enough to give them a little nudge?
1992   Independent 20 Jan. 14/7   As he left, he was kind enough to say that we had made his morning.
2013   E. Segerberg tr. H. Mankell Before Frost 125   ‘Would you be so kind as to keep it down, Miss Westin?’ ‘I'm sorry,’ Linda said. ‘I'll be quiet from now on.’

1532—2013(Hide quotations)


 P2. to take (something) kind : to accept (something) with gratitude or pleasure; to count as a favour. Chiefly in to take it kind . Cf. to take (something) kindly at kindly adv. Phrases 1. Now rare.

1608   S. Rowlands Humors Looking Glasse sig. A2   Esteemed friend, I pray thee take it kinde, That outward action beares an inward minde.
a1616   W. Shakespeare Timon of Athens (1623) i. ii. 219   I take all, and your seuerall visitations So kinde to heart.  View more context for this quotation
1692   W. Temple Mem. Christendom ii. 225   I believ'd His Majesty would take it kinder, and as a piece of more confidence, if His Highness made no difficulty of explaining himself first.
1750   H. Walpole Lett. (1845) II. 354   He took it mighty kind.
1791   J. Boswell Life Johnson anno 1781 II. 405   [Johnson:] Tell him, if he'll call on me..I shall take it kind.
1896   F. H. Groome Kriegspiel ii. x. 208   I would take it kind, Miss, if you'd read me that story yourself.
1949   R. C. Hutchinson Elephant & Castle xxviii. 337   Take it very kind, coming here to cheer up the missis. Very kind of the lady, ain't it, Daise?

1608—1949(Hide quotations)




 a. Parasynthetic, as kind-minded, kind-tempered, etc. See also kind-hearted adj.

1589   T. Wilcox Short Commentarie Prouerbes Salomon xxviii. f. 92   Not onely kinde minded but liberall handed also towards them.
1744   J. Thomson Summer in Seasons (new ed.) 56   The kind-temper'd Change of Night and Day.
1796   H. Flint On Dialogistic Instr. in C. Stearns Dramatic Dialogues for Schools (1798) 520   The kind-souled Daphne, acting nature's part.
1858   F. W. Faber Spiritual Conf. (1870) 25   The kind-thoughted man has no..self-importance to push.
1886   W. Carleton City Ballads 126   An' any kind-expressioned man, who acts a civil part, Can always find my soul to home, an' house-room in my heart.
1918   Amer. Mag. Art July 378/2   He had a high sense of duty, was friendly to all, kind intentioned, loyal and zealous.
1921   Amer. Photo-engraver Oct. 510/2   Of a gentle and kind mannered disposition, ‘Al’ was liked by all who came in contact with him.
2011   D. Brenegan Shame Devil 41   Sara usually sat at the table's end, near the door with..the kind-voiced, vacant-eyed William.

1589—2011(Hide quotations)


  kind-eyed adj.

1804   T. Batchelor Village Scenes 29   Here glows the ruddy bloom of cheerful youth, There kind-ey'd Charity, and heavenly Truth.
1907   M. Hewlett Stooping Lady xxx. 349   A charming, motherly, kind-eyed woman, soft and round and purring, was Mrs. George Fox.
2015   Hobart Mercury (Nexis) 18 Jan. (Lifestyle section) 5   I was stopped in the street by a kind-eyed, middle-aged lady.

1804—2015(Hide quotations)


  kind-faced adj.

1832   N.-Y. Mirror 14 July 13/2   I found myself in the presence of a kind-faced matron.
1918   Century Jan. 327/2   They entered another room, where an elderly, kind-faced officer was seated at a desk.
2015   N.Y. Times (Nexis) 3 Apr. a20   He became a Sunday-morning fixture in countless homes, a kind-faced, white-haired pastor.

1832—2015(Hide quotations)


  kind-natured adj.

1590   C. S. Briefe Resol. Right Relig. 10   These kinde natured children.
1679   J. Dryden Troilus & Cressida v. ii. 67   You good, kind-natur'd, well-believing fools.
1847   C. Brontë Jane Eyre I. xii. 203   Mrs. Fairfax turned out to be what she appeared, a placid-tempered, kind-natured woman, of competent education and average intelligence.
2000   Big Issue 20 Mar. 40/2 (advt.)    Single Mum bubbly, lively, outgoing. WLTM special guy, 30–40, kind-natured and outgoing.

1590—2000(Hide quotations)


kind-contending adj. poetic Obsolete engaging in a good-natured competition.

1728   J. Thomson Spring 30   The Thrush, And Wood-Lark, o'er the kind-contending Throng Superior heard.

1728—1728(Hide quotations)


kind-cruel adj. poetic Obsolete that is simultaneously both kind and cruel.

1605   J. Sylvester tr. G. de S. Du Bartas Deuine Weekes & Wks. i. vi. 192   Pier'st with glance of a kinde-cruell eye.

1605—1605(Hide quotations)


kind man   n. Scottish Obsolete a bondman or tenant who belongs by birth to specified lands or a particular lord.

1381   in W. Fraser Douglas Bk. (1885) III. 30   Owr awin kynde men born vtuthe hir forsaid thrid anyrly ovtakyn.
1456   in Bannatyne Misc. (1855) III. 97   To my barnes..and all my kyndmen and servandis.
1519   in C. Innes Bk. Thanes Cawdor (1859) 131   Sir Jhon beand till us a gud master as ane cheif suld be or ane ourlord to his kyndman and seruandis.
1622   in D. Masson Reg. Privy Council Scotl. (1896) 1st Ser. 744   I and my predecessores hes bein in continwall use of uplifting of calpis fra my..kynd men.

1381—1622(Hide quotations)


kind name   n. Obsolete (with possessive pronoun) a person's proper name.

c1330   St. Mary Magdalene (Auch.) l. 8 in C. Horstmann Sammlung Altengl. Legenden (1878) 163   To wille of bodi sche hir ches, Þat hir kinde nanre [read name] sche les & was ycleped..Mari þe sinful.
c1390  (a1376)    W. Langland Piers Plowman (Vernon) (1867) A. ix. l. 62   A Muche Mon, me þouhte, lyk to my-seluen, Com and clepede me be my kuynde nome.
c1540  (?a1400)    Gest Historiale Destr. Troy (2002) f. 3   A Romayn..That Cornelius was cald to his kynd name.

c1330—c1540(Hide quotations)


  kind regards   n. an expression of affection or friendship, typically used formulaically at the end of a letter, email, etc.

1819   R. Southey Select. from Lett. (1856) III. 518   My womankind join in kind regards.
1840   T. Hood Up Rhine 51   My paper being filled..I must conclude, with kind regards to yourself, and love to Emily.
1913   A. Solomon Let. 21 Feb. in R. A. Rockaway Words of Uprooted (1998) ii. 64   With kind regards to all in the office, I remain Sincerely, A. Solomon.
2005   N.Z. Herald (Nexis) 17 June   Dear Max, Is ‘baloney’ a swear word? Yrs, Donny B. Dear Donny B, Yes it is... Kind regards, Max.

1819—2005(Hide quotations)


kind-witted adj. Obsolete possessing natural reason or intelligence.

c1400  (c1378)    W. Langland Piers Plowman (Laud 581) (1869) B. xii. l. 109   Namore kan a kynde witted man..Come for al his kynde witte to crystendome and be saued.

c1400—c1400(Hide quotations)