kind, adj. and adv.
, ME cunde
, ME cuyndeste
(superlative), ME keend
, ME kend
, ME kiynde
, ME kund
, ME kunde
, ME kuynde
, ME kynt
, ME kyynd
, ME–15 kende
, ME–15 kynde
, ME–16 kinde
, ME–16 kynd
, ME– kind
, lME knydyst
(superlative, transmission error), 16 cinde
, 18 kyind
)); also Scottish
, pre-17 keynd
, pre-17 kyind
, 19 kin'
; Irish English
) 19– kine
. (Show Less)
Frequency (in current use):
Origin: A variant or alteration of another lexical item. Etymon:
Aphetic < (and thus cognate with ).
With use as adverb compare
It is possible that some uses may show conversion directly from
does from ).
For a possible, but doubtful, earlier attestation in sense
and discussion there. Compare also Old English uncynde
(beside earlier ungecynde
: see ).
In early use in senses
translating post-classical Latin grātus
pleasing, also in post-classical Latin in sense ‘gentle, kindly, benevolent’ (see ). In later use in sense
with a stronger element of warmth or friendly affection, probably reinforced by association with sense .
A. adj. I.
Natural, native, and related senses.
b. Naturally suited to or required by a person, thing, activity, etc.; proper, fitting, appropriate. Cf. . Frequently with for. Obsolete.
Til alking thing he gafe, þair kind scrud al for to haue.
iv. l. 768
How sholde a plaunte or lyues creature Lyue with-oute his kynde noriture?
a1475 Recipe Painting in
1 154 (MED)
That the vessel stonde hote as in hors-dunge or in mattis or in good pese straw, but hors-dunge is the beste and most kinde therfor.
a1500 in G. Henslow
Thenne must on..leten out the brised blod, and don In oynement that is kynde there-fore.
1578 T. White 72
If one punishmente will not doe, a kynder muste bee putte in proofe.
1663 J. Beal Let. in R. Boyle
What hay is kindest for sheep.
1694 W. Westmacott 9
Cyder is a kind vehicle and proper menstruum for medical matters.
Naturally existing or present; inherent in the very nature of a person or thing; innate, inborn; not acquired or assumed. Cf. , .
†b. attributive, chiefly with reference to innate mental faculties, as kind wit, kind knowing, etc. Obsolete.
A. i. l. 127
‘Yit haue I no kuynde knowing,’ quod I, ‘þou most teche me betere’.
B. xii. l. 130 (MED)
Kynde witte cometh of alkynnes siȝtes Of bryddes and of bestes, of tastes of treuthe and of deceytes.
Thay, by kynde falsnes and vnstabilnes that in ham is, lytel tell of othys and of mansynge.
1548 N. Lesse tr. F. Lambert ii. xiii. f. xlvi
We wyl that the scripture be taken in hys owne kynde & naturall meanynge.
b. Belonging to a person by right of birth or inheritance; legitimately claimed or held; lawful, rightful. Cf. . Obsolete (Scottish in later use).In quot. : designating a lease of land on favourable terms because of the long continued possession of that land by the tenant's family or ancestors; cf. .
l. 4822 (MED)
Þe folc of englisse & saxons hor lond hom bi nome, & hor kunde eritage mid trayson & suikedome.
Ȝif ich miȝte wiþ eni ginne Me kende eritage to winne.
a1387 J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden
(St. John's Cambr.)
VIII. 35 (MED)
Why art þu come to desherite me of my ryȝt of my kynde burþe [?a1475 anon. tr. naturalle enheritaunce; L. jure..nativo]?
Nabath seide he wolde not chaunge, ne selle his kynde eritage.
xi. l. 1069
And tak the croun, till ws It war kyndar, To bruk for ay, or fals Eduuard it war.
1570 in J. Cranstoun
I. xiii. 130
Ȝe..Baneist his Gudschir from his kynde heritage.
1702 T. Morer 4
Being without those long kind Leases the Tenants in England have.
b. Of a person or animal: native or indigenous to a country or region. Also with to. Cf. . Now Shetland and rare.The use in Shetland probably arises independently by analogy with kindly (see ). Sc. National Dict. records the sense as still in use in Shetland in 1960.
Many kundemen of þis lond Mid king leir hulde also.
þe kunde volc of þe lond adde to hom onde.
(St. John's Cambr.)
Thai war kynde [1489 Adv. kynd] to the cuntre.
1931 J. R. Nicolson 17
The statement was made that there was two distinct species in Shetland. One was known as the ‘kind sheep’.
†c. Having a specified character by nature or from birth; (typically in depreciative contexts) fully warranting a particular description or label by one's very nature; complete, utter. Cf. . Obsolete.
Þouȝh he were komen of no ken, but of kende cherls.
c1450 W. Lichefeld Complaint of God
l. 380 in F. J. Furnivall
But y wole vse wrenchis & wilis Þe comoun uoice is, y schal not þrijf; Summe at me mowis, summe at me smylis, And counten me but a kynde caitif.
1484 Caxton tr. v. v. f. lxxxj
Suche supposeth to be moche wyse, whiche is a kynd and a very foole.
1589 R. Greene sig. G3v
I thought no lesse..that you would proue such a kinde kistrell.
(Trin. Cambr. R.3.15)
l. 489 (MED)
Crist calde hem him-self kynde ypocrites.
Good, with regard to nature, character, or quality.
Of high quality.
†b. Of a person: of noble birth; having the personal qualities associated with, or befitting a person of, noble birth; noble in manners or conduct; spec.
(a) generous, gracious, courteous; = ;
(b) displaying knightly qualities; chivalrous; brave, courageous. Obsolete.
c1325 in G. L. Brook
Cunde comely ase a knyht..in vch an hyrd þyn aþel ys hyht.
l. 5110 (MED)
We were coward & vnhende, Bot we holpen þo children kende.
c1390 in C. Horstmann
Heil quene corteis, comely, and kynde.
l. 2459 (MED)
Þai crosse ouir toward þe kyng as kyndmen [a1500 Trin. Dublin kene men] suld.
i. l. 184
For he was wys, rycht worthy, wicht and kynd.
a1522 G. Douglas in tr. Virgil
i. Prol. 96
Quha mycht gaynsay a lord so gentill and kynd.
1578 J. Rolland 3
He was courtes, cumlie and richt kynd.
c. Of a good or high quality; spec.
(a) (of a crop, vegetation, etc.) thriving, healthy, in good condition;
†(b) (of an animal) well-bred; thoroughbred (obsolete);
(c) (of land, soil, etc.) fertile; = . Cf. . Now rare (chiefly English regional in later use).
(Huntington HM 137)
C. iii. l. 29
No [emended in ed. to ne] on croked kene þorne kynde fygys wexe.
1579 S. Gosson To Gentlewomen in f. 41v
The kindest Mastife, when he is clapped on the back, fighteth best.
1587 T. Churchyard sig. M3v
Good welsh Nagges, that are of kindest race: With goodly nowt, both fat and bigge with bone.
1603 P. Holland tr. Plutarch 163
Signes, not of bad ground, but rather of a kinde and fat soile.
a1656 J. Hales
As men graffe Apples and kind fruits upon Thornes.
1696 W. Nicholls 55
Tillage does macerate and break the Stony Earth again into a fine and kind soil, which is fit for vegetation.
1756 P. Browne ii. ii. 136
It is a hardy and kind pasturage.
1893 J. Salisbury at Kyind
We shaunt 'ave many curran's this year, but the plums seems very kyind.
1895 28 Mar. 2/7
Mr Fitzgerald said the valuers described this as ‘fairly kind sheep pasture’.
1911 C. G. Hopins viii. 48
This is a kind soil.
1957 H. Hall
Kind, said of land: good.
b. gen. Affectionate, loving, fond; (English regional (northern)) intimate, close. Now somewhat archaic, esp. in kind embrace.Many examples of kind embrace from the 20th cent. onwards probably show reinterpretation of the phrase as showing sense .
Wiþ clipping & kessing & alle kinde dedus.
ii. l. 4028 (MED)
I purpose..To wedde ȝou and ben ȝour trew man..And be to ȝou as lowly & as kynde..Þan whilom was ȝoure Menelaus.
1526 W. Bonde i. sig. Biiiv
If they had ben kynde & louyng to god.
?1594 H. Constable
viii. i. sig. F4
Women are kind by kind, but coy by fashion.
1626 J. Gresham tr. Ovid 22
Many nights exchange Of kind embrace betwixt these louers strange.
1709 Pope Autumn in vi. 741
Do Lovers dream, or is my Shepherd kind?
1735 Pope 9
A Spark too fickle, or a Spouse too kind.
1825 J. T. Brockett
Kind, intimate—not kind, at enmity.
1854 M. Davis & J. L. Scott iii. 28
All eager to greet me, and receive me to their kind embrace.
1870 Tennyson 184
Stiles where we stay'd to be kind, Meadows in which we met.
1928 A. E. Pease 70/2
He's gettin ower kind with oor Polly.
He left St. Francis Commons with a clean shave, haircut and a kind embrace.
†c. euphemistic. Designating a woman who is available to be a person's mistress, lover, or sexual partner. Chiefly in kind girl. Obsolete.
1620 S. Rowlands sig. D2v
I note the places of polluted sinne Where your kind wenches and their bawds put in.
1674 T. Duffett Prol. sig. a3v
Tell me Gallants! which would you like best? The tedious Fool that stayes 'till she is drest, Or the kind Girl, who when the hour is come, Slips on the Morning Gown, and steals from home?
1698 J. Fryer 110
The next Moon their Women flock to the Sacred Wells; where, they say, it is not difficult to persuade them to be kind.
1712 J. Addison No. 486. ¶1
I am very particularly acquainted with one who is under entire Submission to a kind Girl, as he calls her... No longer than Tuesday last he took me with him to visit his Mistress.
1746 W. Hyland v. 27
One kind Girl is worth a Dozen Wives—Matrimony is worse than the Galleys.
1778 C. Dibdin ii. ii. 32
Let constant lovers at the feet Of pale-fac'd wenches, sigh and pine, For me, the first kind girl I meet Shall be my toast.
b. Grateful, appreciative. Obsolete (English regional in later use).
a1475 tr. Thomas à Kempis
Þou shuldest know my love, and be ever kynde [L. gratus] to my benefaytes.
a1500 tr. Thomas à Kempis
Be kynde þerfore for a litel þinge, & þou shalt be worþi to take gretter.
?1531 R. Whitford tr. ii. x. f. liii
If a man desyre to holde the grace of god be he kinde and thankfull for suche grace as he hathe receyued.
1563 2nd Tome Homelyes Time of Prayer i, in J. Griffiths
He should declare himself thankful and kind, for all those benefits.
1612 B. Jonson v. iv. sig. M
Sub. Why doe you not thanke her Grace? Dap. I cannot speake, for Ioy. Sub. See, the kinde wretch!
1700 J. Treffry 56
I should have been kind, And grateful, for your former Courtesies.
1877 E. Peacock (at cited word)
I'm very kind to Mrs...'cause she sent me them coals i' th' winter.
b. English regional. Of hair, fur, etc.: soft and sleek to the touch. Obsolete.
1828 W. Carr
Kind, soft. ‘As kind as a glove.’ Kind-harled, soft-haired.
1848 9 ii. 429
Breeders..are now fully alive to the importance of kind hair and good flesh in a feeding beast.
1886 W. Barnes
Kind, sleek, as spoken of fur.
Having a friendly, benevolent, or considerate disposition, and related senses.Now the usual use; senses , , are the senses commonly found in standard modern English.
b. With to. Behaving in a benevolent, friendly, or warm-hearted manner towards a particular person, group, or animal; considerate or helpful to.In quot. with dative personal pronoun (rather than to).
William of Shoreham
Ha wole be þe so kende, He wole be fo to þyne fon, And frend to þyne frende.
A. xi. l. 243
Þat is, iche cristene man be kynde to oþer, And siþen hem to helpe.
c1450 W. Lichefeld Complaint of God
l. 491 in F. J. Furnivall
Euere þe kyndir to me þou art, Þe more vnkyndir am y agayn.
1528 Tyndale f. cxvv
A wife after so many and oft pylgremages be moare chast, moare obediente vnto hyr husbande, morekynde to hyr maydes and other servauntes.
1570 T. North tr. A. F. Doni Prol. f. 5
Oh this man is to kinde to mee, that to couer mine leaueth his owne heape bare.
1600 Shakespeare iii. i. 156
Be kinde and curteous to this gentleman..Feede him with Apricocks, and Dewberries.
1693 N. Staphorst tr. L. Rauwolf Trav. Eastern Countries ii. x, in J. Ray I. 214
These are good-hearted Christians, which have great Compassion on their Fellow-Christians, and love to entertain and to be kind to Strangers.
1707 Lady M. W. Montagu 2 May
I hope you intend to be kinder to me this Summer than you was the last.
1807 G. Crabbe Parish Reg. iii, in 128
Kind to the Poor, and, ah! most kind to me.
1898 June 186/1
The agent of the mills was a single man, keen and business-like, but quietly kind to the people under his charge.
1928 N. Coward Mad about You in B. Day
When you are inclined to be Encouraging and kind to me I simply walk on air.
2008 Y. Jerrold xiv. 85
What a pity Billy did not take after his father who was always kind to animals.
b. Of a thing (originally and esp. a commercial product): gentle with regard to action or impact; unlikely to cause harm or damage to someone or something; not harsh.
1904 30 Apr. 1
Fels-Naptha [soap] is kind to skin and clothes.
1937 26 July 12/4
La Cross Glycerated Nail Polish Remover contains no acetone and is kind to brittle nails.
(News of World)
Persil is kind to all your wash—whites, woollens, coloureds, fine things.
1981 10 Sept. 792/1
Methanol also appears to be kinder to the engine [than petrol].
2008 6 Apr. 14/2
‘Boiling’ bodies down to a handful of dust... can at least claim to be kinder to the planet than some traditional ways of disposing of the dead.
P1. to be so kind as (also kind enough) to do something :
(a) to be well-disposed or benevolent enough to do the thing stated;
(b) (used in making a polite or courteous request) to be obliging enough to do the favour solicited. Now formal or somewhat archaic, except in ironic use.Cf. .
1532 J. Frith Myrrour to know Thy Selfe iii, in Tyndale et al.
Yet was I neuer so kynde as to thancke him [sc. God] that he had not made me so vile a creature [as a toad].
a1652 R. Brome
iv. i. F4v2
Osr. Will you be so kind as to see my Trial? Mild. Indeed I must not leave you.
1781 T. Jefferson Let. 3 Feb. in
Be kind enough to send some Paper, wax, Inkpowder and wafers.
1816 J. Austen II. i. 5
Mrs. Cole was so kind as to sit some time with us, talking of Jane.
1869 12 Nov. 217/3
Will any of your numerous readers be kind enough to inform me of the best plan of gaiting a pair of cart wheels?
1953 A. Huxley 19 July
Your publishers told me some time ago that they would send me proofs... Would you be kind enough to give them a little nudge?
1992 20 Jan. 14/7
As he left, he was kind enough to say that we had made his morning.
2013 E. Segerberg tr. H. Mankell 125
‘Would you be so kind as to keep it down, Miss Westin?’ ‘I'm sorry,’ Linda said. ‘I'll be quiet from now on.’
P2. to take (something) kind : to accept (something) with gratitude or pleasure; to count as a favour. Chiefly in to take it kind . Cf. . Now rare.
1608 S. Rowlands sig. A2
Esteemed friend, I pray thee take it kinde, That outward action beares an inward minde.
i. ii. 219
I take all, and your seuerall visitations So kinde to heart.
1692 W. Temple ii. 225
I believ'd His Majesty would take it kinder, and as a piece of more confidence, if His Highness made no difficulty of explaining himself first.
1750 H. Walpole
He took it mighty kind.
1791 J. Boswell anno 1781 II. 405
[Johnson:] Tell him, if he'll call on me..I shall take it kind.
1896 F. H. Groome ii. x. 208
I would take it kind, Miss, if you'd read me that story yourself.
1949 R. C. Hutchinson xxviii. 337
Take it very kind, coming here to cheer up the missis. Very kind of the lady, ain't it, Daise?
a. Parasynthetic, as kind-minded, kind-tempered, etc. See also
1589 T. Wilcox xxviii. f. 92
Not onely kinde minded but liberall handed also towards them.
1744 J. Thomson Summer in
The kind-temper'd Change of Night and Day.
1796 H. Flint On Dialogistic Instr. in C. Stearns
The kind-souled Daphne, acting nature's part.
1858 F. W. Faber
The kind-thoughted man has no..self-importance to push.
1886 W. Carleton 126
An' any kind-expressioned man, who acts a civil part, Can always find my soul to home, an' house-room in my heart.
1918 July 378/2
He had a high sense of duty, was friendly to all, kind intentioned, loyal and zealous.
1921 Oct. 510/2
Of a gentle and kind mannered disposition, ‘Al’ was liked by all who came in contact with him.
2011 D. Brenegan 41
Sara usually sat at the table's end, near the door with..the kind-voiced, vacant-eyed William.
1804 T. Batchelor 29
Here glows the ruddy bloom of cheerful youth, There kind-ey'd Charity, and heavenly Truth.
1907 M. Hewlett xxx. 349
A charming, motherly, kind-eyed woman, soft and round and purring, was Mrs. George Fox.
18 Jan. (Lifestyle section) 5
I was stopped in the street by a kind-eyed, middle-aged lady.
1832 14 July 13/2
I found myself in the presence of a kind-faced matron.
1918 Jan. 327/2
They entered another room, where an elderly, kind-faced officer was seated at a desk.
3 Apr. a20
He became a Sunday-morning fixture in countless homes, a kind-faced, white-haired pastor.
1590 C. S. 10
These kinde natured children.
1679 Dryden v. ii. 67
You good, kind-natur'd, well-believing fools.
1847 C. Brontë I. xii. 203
Mrs. Fairfax turned out to be what she appeared, a placid-tempered, kind-natured woman, of competent education and average intelligence.
2000 20 Mar. 40/2
Single Mum bubbly, lively, outgoing. WLTM special guy, 30–40, kind-natured and outgoing.
† kind-contending adj. poetic Obsolete engaging in a good-natured competition.
1728 J. Thomson 30
The Thrush, And Wood-Lark, o'er the kind-contending Throng Superior heard.
† kind-cruel adj. poetic Obsolete that is simultaneously both kind and cruel.
1605 J. Sylvester tr. G. de S. Du Bartas i. vi. 192
Pier'st with glance of a kinde-cruell eye.
† kind man n. Scottish Obsolete a bondman or tenant who belongs by birth to specified lands or a particular lord.
1381 in W. Fraser
Owr awin kynde men born vtuthe hir forsaid thrid anyrly ovtakyn.
To my barnes..and all my kyndmen and servandis.
1519 in C. Innes
Sir Jhon beand till us a gud master as ane cheif suld be or ane ourlord to his kyndman and seruandis.
1622 in D. Masson
1st Ser. 744
I and my predecessores hes bein in continwall use of uplifting of calpis fra my..kynd men.
† kind name n. Obsolete (with possessive pronoun) a person's proper name.
c1330 St. Mary Magdalene
l. 8 in C. Horstmann
To wille of bodi sche hir ches, Þat hir kinde nanre [read name] sche les & was ycleped..Mari þe sinful.
A. ix. l. 62
A Muche Mon, me þouhte, lyk to my-seluen, Com and clepede me be my kuynde nome.
A Romayn..That Cornelius was cald to his kynd name.
kind regards n. an expression of affection or friendship, typically used formulaically at the end of a letter, email, etc.
1819 R. Southey
My womankind join in kind regards.
1840 T. Hood 51
My paper being filled..I must conclude, with kind regards to yourself, and love to Emily.
1913 A. Solomon Let. 21 Feb. in R. A. Rockaway
With kind regards to all in the office, I remain Sincerely, A. Solomon.
Dear Max, Is ‘baloney’ a swear word? Yrs, Donny B. Dear Donny B, Yes it is... Kind regards, Max.
† kind-witted adj. Obsolete possessing natural reason or intelligence.
B. xii. l. 109
Namore kan a kynde witted man..Come for al his kynde witte to crystendome and be saued.
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This entry has been updated (OED Third Edition, September 2016).
In this entry:
In other dictionaries:
- My entries(1)
- kinaesthesis, n.1880
- kinaki, n.1820
- kinara, n.1970
- kinase, n.1902
- kinboot, n.c1425
- kinch, n.a1600
- kinchin, n.1567
- kincob, n.1712
- kind, n.eOE
- kind, adj. and adv.lOE
- kind, v.?c1450
- -kind, suffix1786
- kinda, adv. and adj.1830
- kinded, adj.a1560
- kinder, n.1955
- kindergarten, n.1851
- kindergarten, v.1872
- kindergartener, n.1868
- kindergartenize, v.1890
- kinder, kirche, küch...1892
- kinderspiel, n.1886
- Kindertransport, n.1940
- kinderwhore, adj. an...1994
- kindhead, n.c1300
- kind-hearted, adj.1535
- kindheartedly, adv.1803
- kindheartedness, n.1583
- kindlaik, n.c1450
- kindle, n.?c1225
- kindle, v.1?c1200
- kindle, v.2?c1225
- kindle-coal, n.1630
- kindled, adj.1440
- kindle-fire, n.1595
- kindler, n.?a1439
- kindless, adj.?c1200
- kindlike, adj.1489
- kindlily, adv.1625
- kindliness, n.?c1425
- kindling, n.11324