From the second edition (1989):
cattle, n.
(ˈkæt(ə)l) Forms: 3–5 (occas. 6) catel, (4 cadel, catil, catele, cathel, katel, -ell, ketele, 4–5 (occas. 6–7) catell, catelle, 4–6 catayl, 5 catail, catayll(e, catal, -ale, 5–8 -all); 6–8 cattel, cattell, (6–7 cattal, -all, cattaile, 6 cattayle); 7– cattle. See also chattel. [ME. catel, a. ONF. catel (= central OF. chatel, Pr. captal, capdal):—late L. captāle, L. capitāle, neuter of the adj. capitālis head-, principal, capital, used subst. in mediæval times in the sense ‘principal sum of money, capital, wealth, property’; cf. mod. Eng. capital = stock in trade. Thus Papias has ‘capitale, caput pecuniæ, capitis summa’, the Catholicon ‘capitale, pecunia’. Under the feudal system the application was confined to movable property or wealth, as being the only ‘personal’ property, and in English it was more and more identified with ‘beast held in possession, live stock’, which was almost the only use after 1500, exc. in the technical phrase ‘goods and catells (cattals)’ which survived till the 17th c. In legal Anglo-French, the Norman catel was superseded at an early period by the Parisian chatel; this continued to be used in the earlier and wider sense (subject however to legal definition), and has in modern times passed into a certain current use as chattel, so that the phrase just cited is now also since 16th c. ‘goods and chattels’. Down to 1500 the typical spelling was catel; in the 16th c. this became cattel, cattell; only since 1600, and chiefly since 1700, spelt cattle. As this spelling is never found in earlier use, and, hence, never in the earlier sense, it would be possible to treat this sense as a separate word Catel, property; but on the other hand the modern sense has all the forms catel, cattel(l, cattle, according to date, and the history is better elucidated by treating the word as a historical whole. chattel, however, as a distinct modern form and sense, is dealt with in its own place.
OF. (besides the ch- forms, for which see chattel) had, according to dialect and date, the forms catel, katel, cathel, cateul, cateil. Hence the ME. variants cathel, catail, -ayl. The Norman word was again latinized as catellum, catallum, the latter esp. current in English law-Latin, whence the forms catal(l, cattal(l, so frequent in 15–16th c., esp. in the legal phrase ‘goods and cattals’.]


I. Property, article of property, chattel. Obs. (Forms catel, cattel(l.)


1. a. Property, substance; strictly personal property or estate, wealth, goods. Obs.

c1275 Lay. 30673 He nam tonnes [gode] and þat catel [1205 æhte] dude [þer] ine. a1300 Sarmun 46 in E.E.P. (1862) 6 Siþ þat þe world nis noȝt and catel nis bot vanite. c1300 Cursor M. 27934 It wastes bodi and als catel [v.r. ketele]. c1325 Metr. Hom. (1862) 131 An unseli knafe That wald gladli katel have. 1387 Trevisa Higden vi. ix, Clerkes‥spende the catayle of holy chyrche in other places at theyr owne wille. ?a1400 Manuale Sarisb., Sponsalia in Maskell Mon. Rit. (1882) I. 58 With all my worldely cathel I the endowe. a1400 Relig. Pieces fr. Thornton MS. (1867) 6 Robes or reches or oþer catell. c1440 Promp. Parv. 63 Catelle [K. catal], catalum, census. 1495 W. de Worde ed. Barth. De P.R. iii. iii. 57 By loue of worldly catall.


b. Money; esp. capital, as distinct from interest.

c1330 Amis & Amil. 1855 Al her catel than was spent Saue tvelf pans. a1340 Hampole Psalter xiv. 6 He þat gaf noght his katel til okyre. 1340 Ayenb. 36 Þet hi habbe huet cas yualle: hire catel sauf. 1483 Caxton Gold. Leg. 267/1 Fader I haue wonne nothyng but haue lost your catayll.


c. fig. Obs.

1388 Wyclif Ecclus. xxx. 15 No catel is aboue the catel [1382 monee] of helthe of bodi. c1400 Mandeville Prol. 2 More precious Catelle, ne gretter Ransoum ne myghte he put for us then his blessede body.


d. Sometimes used in conjunction with other terms for ‘property’: see 3.

1387 Trevisa Higden (Rolls) I. 229 Þey þat‥gadereþ money and corn and catel of oþer men. 1393 Gower Conf. II. 128 Of golde, of catel, or of londe. c1394 P. Pl. Crede 116 Oþer catell oþer cloþ to coveren wiþ our bones.


e. fig. Rubbish, trash. (But cf. 1 Cor. ix. 9.)

1643 Milton Divorce iv. (1851) 28 Certainly not the meere motion of carnall lust, not the meer goad of a sensitive desire; God does not principally take care for such cattell.


2. a. As an individual sing. = chattel, with collective pl. originally in association with ‘goods’ or other pl. noun. Obs.
This use was evidently derived from law-Latin, in which catallum, catalla were so used. Cf. cum suis catallis omnibus mobilibus, cited by Du Cange, from Leg. Edw. Conf. p. 894, and the phrase melius catallum the best chattel, droit de meilleur catel, the heriot, ibid.

1477 Earl Rivers (Caxton) Dictes 68 Sapience‥can not be lost as other catalles and wordely goodes may. 1502 Arnolde Chron. (1811) 245 The residew of alle my goodis, catellis, and dettis. 1641 Termes de la Ley 49 Catals comprehend in it selfe all goods mooveable & immooveable, except such as are in nature of freehold‥Catals are either reall or personall. 1644 Jus Populi 37 The condition of a slave is worse than of a beast or any inanimate Cattels. 1720 Stow's Surv. (ed. Strype 1754) II. v. xxvi. 457/1 That they ought not to be taxed of their rents and Catalls.


b. fig. (see 1c.) Obs.

1489 Caxton Faytes of A. iii. xv. 203 They setten in aduenture so dere a catell as is‥the lyffe. 1567 Wills & Inv. N.C. (1835) I. 273 Superstitions and feyned cattells onlye deuised to illud the symple and vnlerned.


3. Often used in the phrase goods and cattel; later more frequently goods and cattels, of which the extant form is goods and chattels: see chattel.
As in this sense the form cattals is specially prevalent, it looks like a translation of a legal Anglo-Lat. bona et catalla. Du Cange quotes from Leg. Edw. Conf. c. 35 Cum decimis omnium terrarum, ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum.

c1430 Freemasonry 468 Take here goodes and here cattelle Unto the kynges hond, everydelle. 1436 Test. Ebor. (1855) II. 76 Ye residewe of all my godes and my catell. 1464 in Paston Lett. 493 II. 167 The administracion of the goods and catell. 1495 Act 11 Hen. VII, xlv, Londes, tenementes, godes, catail, and all other the premysses.
1418 E.E. Wills (1882) 35 The Residue of alle my Godes and my Catallys mebles. 1450 in Paston Lett. 107 I. 144 Whiche riotous peple‥bare awey alle the goodes and catalx. 1454 in Ellis Orig. Lett. ii. 38 I. 121 And toke godes and catals. 1528 in W. H. Turner Select. Rec. Oxford 61 Ye goods or catells of ye said schollers. 1597 1st Pt. Return fr. Parnass. i. i. 185 It's all the goods and cattels thy father lefte thee. 1660 R. Coke Power & Subj. 211 All contributions to the see of Rome‥were forbidden upon pain of forfeiture of all the goods and cattals for ever.

¶The transition to sense 4 is seen in the following:
1529 Frith Pistle to Chr. Reader 10 Commaunded to destroye the Kynge of Amelech and all his goodes, howbeit he spared the kinges liffe & ye fayrest goodes & catelles, makinge sacrifice with them. 1547 Homilies i. Falling from God i, Yt he should kyl al the amalechites, and destroye them clerely with their goodes and cattals: yet he‥saued‥all the chief of their cattall [ed. 1574 has cattel, cattell], therwith to make sacrifice.


II. Live stock. (Forms catel, cattel(l, cattle.)


4. a. A collective name for live animals held as property, or reared to serve as food, or for the sake of their milk, skin, wool, etc.
The application of the term has varied greatly, according to the circumstances of time and place, and has included camels, horses, asses, mules, oxen, cows, calves, sheep, lambs, goats swine, etc. The tendency in recent times has been to restrict the term to the bovine genus, but the wider meaning is still found locally, and in many combinations. As this sense was originally comprised under 1, distinct instances before 1500 are scarce.

a1300 Cursor M. 6002 Hors, asse, mule, ox, camell, Dun þan deid all þair catell. 1375 Barbour Bruce xviii. 274 Bot cattell haf thai fundyn nane, Outane a kow that wes haltand. c1425 Wyntoun Cron. i. xiii. 8 And tyl all catale pasture gwde. 1523 Fitzherb. Husb. §37 Shepe in myne opynyon is the mooste profytablest cattell that any man can haue. 1535 Fisher Wks. i. (1876) 391 When hee goeth to hys pastures to see hys Cattayle. 1577 B. Googe Heresbach's Husb. (1586) 125b, The Camel is cheefly used in ye east parts, which some suppose to be the serviceablest cattell for man that is. Ibid. 153b, The Dogge (though the Lawyer alloweth him not in the number of cattel) and though he yeeldes of himselfe no profite, yet is he‥to be esteemed. 1580 Sidney Arcadia iii. 400 Blithe were the common cattell of the field. 1604 E. G[rimston] D'Acosta's Hist. Indies iii. xvi. 170 There are great numbers of cattell, especially swine. 1607 Topsell Four-f. Beasts 183 The goatherds of the countrey do give thereof to their cattel. 1650 Fuller Pisgah. ii. ii. 80 How came the Gadarens, being undoubtedly Jews‥to keep such a company of useless cattell [= swine]? 1697 Dryden Virg. Georg. iii. 590 Is Wool thy Care? Let not thy Cattle go‥where Burs and Thistles grow. 1741–2 Act 15 & 16 Geo. II, xxxiv, By cattle, in this act, is to be understood any bull, cow, ox, steer, bullock, heifer, calf, sheep, and lamb, and no other cattle whatever. 1767 A. Young Farmer's Lett. People 297 Cattle of no kind will thrive but in the master's eye. a1856 Longfellow Psalm of Life, Be not like dumb driven cattle, Be a hero in the strife. 1875 Jevons Money (1878) 89 The former use of cattle as a medium of exchange.


b. Extended to fowls, bees, etc. Obs. or arch.

c1420 Pallad. on Husb. i. 1057 So made that lysardes may not ascende, Ne wicked worme this catell [bees] for to offende. 1577 B. Googe Heresbach's Husb. (1586) 163 I wilnot refuse to shew you somwhat also of my feathered cattel. 1589 R. Harvey Pl. Perc. 17 Take heed, thine owne Cattaile sting thee not. 1622 Mabbe tr. Aleman's Guzman D'Alf. i. 139 In breeding of Cattell, as Pigs, Hens, and Chickens, and the like. 1830 Carlyle Misc. (1857) II. 129 Among all manner of bovine, swinish and feathered cattle.


c. Now usually confined to, or understood of, bovine animals.

1555 Eden Decades W. Ind. i. x. (Arb.) 104 Neat or cattall becoome of bygger stature. 1570 Levins Manip. 55 Cattel, boves, jumenta. 1605 Camden Rem. 1 Replenished with cattell both tame and wilde. 1673 Ray Journ. Low C. 57 Their Horse and Cattel. 1756 Gentl. Mag. XXVI. 73 Fair for the sale of black cattle once a fortnight‥There is belonging to Chillingham Castle a large park where there is a kind of wild cattle which are all white. 1836 Penny Cycl. VI. 378/2 In the usual acceptation of the word [cattle] it is confined to the ox. 1887 Daily News 11 Jan. 2/4 A fair demand for both cattle and sheep.


d. In the language of the stable, applied to horses.

a1680 Butler Rem. (1759) I. 224 Such as a Carrier makes his Cattle wear, And hangs for Pendents in a Horse's Ear. 1733 Fielding Quix. in Eng. i. iii, Your worship's cattle are saddled. 1750 Coventry Pompey Litt. ii. iv. (1785) 58/1 He kept a phaeton chaise, and four ‘bay cattle’. 1826 Scott Woodst. xxxii. 1835 Sir G. Stephen Search of Horse ii. 34 All the disabled cattle of the summer stages to Brighton, Southampton, and so forth. 1886 J. S. Winter In Quarters, To cast reflections unfavorable to‥the color of their uniform, the class of their cattle.


e. Applied by slaveholders to their slaves.

1850 Mrs. Stowe Uncle Tom's C. xxxiii, What have any of you cussed cattle to do with thinking what's right?


5. a. Used also as an ordinary plural of number.b. rarely as a singular = beast, ox, etc.

1624 Capt. Smith Virginia iv. 123 We found there in all one hundred twentie eight cattell. 1725 Minute Bk. Soc. Antiq. (Brand s.v. Funerals), A hundred black cattle are killed. 1796 W. Marshall Yorksh. (ed. 2) I. 158 A cattle, when it goes into a drinking pit‥throws the chief part of its weight upon its fore feet.


6. With attributes; neat cattle, horned cattle: oxen, bovine animals. black cattle: ‘oxen, bulls, and cows’ (J.); prob. at first properly applied to the black breeds found in the highlands of Scotland, Wales, and other districts, to which it is still by some restricted, but as other colours appear in the progeny of these, the name has come to have a general application.

1535 Coverdale 1 Kings iv. 23 Ten fat oxen, and twenty small catell, and an hundreth shepe. 1701 Col. Rec. Penn. II. 27 That there shall be no neat Cattle kill'd. 1725 Min. Book Soc. Antiq. 21 July (Brand), After the body [of a Highland chief] is interred, a hundred black cattle and two or three hundred sheep are killed for the entertainment of the company. 1753 Chambers Cycl. Supp. s.v. Cattle, Black Cattle more particularly denotes the cow kind. These are also denominated neat cattle. 1781 Gibbon Decl. & F. II. xlii. 555 Their sheep and horned cattle were large and numerous. 1803 J. Bristed Pedest. Tour II. 450 We now turned due west over the mountains, and‥met some black-cattle drovers. 1815 Scott Guy M. iv, Green pastures, tenanted chiefly by herds of black cattle, then the staple commodity of the country. 1836 Penny Cycl. VI. 378/2 [Cattle] In the usual acceptation‥is confined to the ox, or what is called black cattle or horned cattle. But as many varieties are not black, and several have no horns, the name neat cattle is more appropriate. 1864 D. Mitchell Wet Days at Edgew. 257 Known for his stock of neat cattle. 1868 G. Duff Pol. Surv. 209 The horned cattle, horses, and sheep are remarkably fine.


7. In various extended uses; mostly contemptuous: a. of vermin, insects, and the like. ? Obs.

1616 Surfl. & Markh. Countr. Farm 170 In the holes of this wicked cattell [Rats]. Ibid. 318 Lizards and serpents, and other noysome cattell. a1656 Bp. Hall Invis. World iii. iii, Doth he fetch frogs out of Nilus?‥they can store Egypt with loathsome cattle as well as he. 1639 T. de la Grey Compl. Horsem. 100 It hath caused the Horse to voyd many of these bad Cattle [worms]. 1673 Cave Prim. Chr. ii. vii. 169 Flies, Wasps, and such little Cattel. 1685 R. Burton Eng. Emp. Amer. iv. 86 Tame Cattel they have none except lice.


b. of men and women, with reference to various preceding senses. arch.

1579 Gosson Sch. Abuse (Arb.) 27 We haue infinite Poets, and Pipers, and suche peeuishe cattel among vs in Englande, that liue by merrie begging. 1600 Shakes. A.Y.L. iii. ii. 435 Boyes and women are‥cattle of this colour. 1682 Evelyn Diary 24 Jan., The Dutchess of Portsmouth, Nelly,‥concubines, and cattell of that sort, as splendid as jewells‥could make them. 1690 B. E. Dict. Cant. Crew, Sad Cattle, Impudent Lewd Women. 1768 H. Walpole Hist. Doubts 11 To have consulted astrologers and such like cattle. 1823 Scott Peveril xx, To sweep this north country of such like cattle [priests].


III. attrib. and Comb. (all belonging to branch II, and referring mainly to bovine animals).


8. General relations: a. objective or obj. gen. with verbal n. or agent noun, as cattle-breeder, cattle-breeding, cattle-dealer, cattle-driving, cattle-drover, cattle-farming, cattle-hougher, cattle-houghing, cattle-killing, cattle-maiming, cattle-raiding, cattle-raiser, cattle-raising, cattle-rearing, cattle-rustler, cattle-rustling, cattle-stealing, cattle-thief.

1827 Whately Logic in Encycl. Metrop. (1845) 234/1 Bakewell, the celebrated *cattle-breeder. 1877 tr. Tiele's Hist. Relig. 17 Without neglecting *cattle-breeding and agriculture. 1824 Miss Mitford Village Ser. i. (1863) 103 A rich and liberal *cattle-dealer in the neighbourhood. 1878 Simpson Sch. Shaks. I. 60 If *cattle-driving was to be interpreted as levying war. 1806 Forsyth Beauties Scotl. IV. 260 The object of *cattle-farming is chiefly breeding. 1886 Pall Mall G. 8 May 1/1 Executing the just judgment of offended Heaven upon *cattle-houghers, traitors, and assassins. 1831 Southey Lett. (1856) IV. 217 B ——‥is literally a *cattlejobber. 1907 Westm. Gaz. 6 Sept. 5/1 The renewed outbreak of *cattle-maiming in this parish [sc. Great Wyrley]. 1965 K. H. Connell in Pop. in Hist. xvii. 433 Arson and murder, the boycott and cattle-maiming were some of their weapons. 1899 Daily News 13 Nov. 7/4 The real object of this *cattle-raiding expedition. 1853 ‘P. Paxton’ Yankee in Texas 122 He lived on the frontier amid the Ingens, and *cattle-raisers. 1896 Daily News 16 Jan. 5/6 All the victims were well-known cattle-raisers. 1878 I. L. Bird Lady's Life in Rocky Mts. (1879) x. 170 Perry's Park is one of the great *cattle-raising ranches in Colorado. 1883 Athenæum 2 June 693 In Galicia cattle-raising is rapidly superseding tillage. 1923 Daily Mail 15 Feb. 8 A great crisis has fallen upon the cattle-raising industry of this Republic. 1953 E. Smith Guide to Eng. Trad. 3 Some livestock farmers‥specialize in sheep-rearing rather than in cattle-raising. 1872 Yeats Techn. Hist. Comm. 37 *Cattle-rearing formed an important branch of Egyptian agriculture. 1903 A. Adams Log Cowboy vii. 86 The stampede‥was the work of *cattle rustlers. 1907 S. E. White Arizona Nights i. iii. 60 We‥saw the beginning of the cattle rustling. 1960 Farmer & Stockbreeder 15 Mar. 75/1 The alleged case of cattle-rustling. 1803 Edin. Rev. I. 404 The renown of *cattle-stealers. 1862 T. E. DeVoe Market Bk. I. 172 A foraging party, under‥the city's former governor‥extensively known as a ‘*Cattle Thief’. 1903 A. Adams Log Cowboy vii. 101 The biggest cattle-thief ever born in Medinah County.


b. attrib., as cattle-cabbage, cattle-camp (camp n.2 4c), cattle-close, cattle-country, cattle-culture, cattle-dropping, cattle-farm, cattle-feed, cattle-food, cattle-herd, cattle-kraal, cattle-market, cattle-park, cattle-path, cattle-pen, cattle-show, cattle-track, cattle-trade, cattle-trough, cattle-yard, etc.; (connected with the transport of cattle), as cattle-boat, cattle-car, cattle-ship, cattle siding, cattle-steamer, cattle-train, cattle-truck, cattle-wagon, etc. c. instrumental and parasynthetic, as cattle-specked, cattle-sprent, etc.; cattle-proof adj. d. cattle-farm vb. (rare).

1860 Sala Make your Game 14 Not a *cattle-boat luckily, though, in some pens forward, there were a few sheep. 1889 C. Edwardes Sardinia 375 This Black Hole of a cattle-boat. 1945 Wyndham Lewis Let. 13 Mar. (1963) 381 There still is no alternative: a cattle-boat‥or stop here. 1900 H. Lawson Verses Pop. & Humorous 219 The old bark-school‥Is a *cattle-camp in winter. 1931 V. Palmer Separate Lives 122 Its wild horns and glossy red coat had become a familiar figure on the cattle-camp when he mustered to cut out the half-yearly mob of fats. 1864 C. H. Cooke Let. 4 May in Wisconsin Mag. Hist. (1921) V. 65 We took the train for Chattanooga. Our cars were *cattle cars. 1951 M. McLuhan Mech. Bride 23/1 Why doesn't somebody write of a last-minute gamble for happiness in a cattle car headed for Buchenwald? 1865 A. Cary Ball. & Lyrics 5 She‥found him In the dusty *cattle-close. 1886 T. Roosevelt in Cent. Mag. July 340/1 The *cattle country of western Dakota. 1943 Collier's 28 Aug. 11/1 This stirring tale of the cattle country. 1886 Bazaar 18 Oct. 415 We devote the greatest attention to oyster-culture, bee-culture, *cattle-culture. 1810 F. Clater (title), Every Man his own *Cattle Doctor. 1883 G. C. Davies Norfolk Broads xxxiv. (1884) 267 In a place where *cattle-droppings were abundant. 1881 Mrs. Praed Policy & P. I. 51 He *cattle-farms a few thousand acres. 1832 H. Martineau Demerara iii. 34 We have the *cattle-feed to gather. 1821 in Cobbett Rur. Rides (1885) I. 29 My‥system of *cattle-food husbandry. 1844 Marg. Fuller Woman 19th C. (1862) 45 Penelope is no more meant for a baker or a weaver solely than Ulysses for a *cattle-herd. 1897 J. Bryce Impressions S. Afr. ix. 86 All round on the lower ground are large inclosures rudely built of rough stones, and probably intended for *cattle-kraals. 1932 C. Fuller L. Trigardt's Trek xi. 142 When this area was first settled by Europeans, old cattle-kraal sites‥were found in the fly country. 1838 Dickens O. Twist xvi, Pens for beasts: and other indications of a *cattle-market. 1813 Wellington Let. in Gurw. Disp. X. 428 If‥our *Cattle parks are to be plundered with impunity. 1838 Hawthorne Amer. Note-Bks. 9 Sept. (1868) I. 257 Followed a *cattle-path till I came to a cottage. 1887 Outing (U.S.) May 117/2 The bank was worn away on the other side by a cattle-path just wide enough for one. 1837 Carlyle Fr. Rev. iii. i. ii, Hurled in thither as into *cattle-pens. 1882 Armstrong & Campbell Austral. Sheep Husbandry xvii. 187 This fence possesses the advantage over the ordinary wire fence of being *cattle-proof, or nearly so. 1908 Daily Chron. 17 Sept. 7/2 A twelve-foot barrier of cattle-proof wire. 1915 N.Z. Jrnl. Agric. 20 Feb. 190 Can you advise me as to the best hedge to grow‥to make a good cattle-proof fence? 1630 J. Winthrop Hist. New Eng. (1908) I. 29 Mr. Weatherell, whose father was master of one of the *cattle ships. 1891 Scribner's Mag. X. 610 The loading of cattle-ships. 1815 N. Amer. Rev. II. 136 The *Cattle show‥at Pittsfield. 1844 Ainsworth's Mag. VI. 534 Farmers,‥who had been in town enjoying the spectacle of the ‘cattle-show’. 1877 C. M. Yonge Womankind i. 2 African chieftainesses are fattened on milk like pigs for a cattle-show. 1870 Daily News 23 Apr., The *cattle sidings have been lately set apart for goods waggons. 1876 Geo. Eliot Dan. Der. viii. lxiv. 574 She saw the *cattle-specked fields. 1800 J. Hurdis Favourite Vill. 195 Its *cattle-sprent enclosures. 1858 T. Viele Following the Drum 150 It was a beaten *cattle-track cut thru the chapparal. 1905 Hubbard Neolithic Dew-Ponds & Cattle-Ways iii. 55 A quarry has been formed cutting through the lines of the cattle-tracks. 1883 Fortn. Rev. 1 Aug. 188 If the *cattle-truck and *cattle-steamer had not brought some inveterate plague. 1887 Whitaker's Almanack 98 On 1st June 1886 there were in London 633 *cattle-troughs and 594 drinking-fountains. 1860 W. G. Clark in Vacat. Tour. 62, I found a train of empty trucks and *cattle-waggons just starting. 1825 J. Lorain Pract. Husb. 357 The back of them forms the *cattle yard fence. 1840 Kyle Farm Rep. in Libr. Usef. Knowl., Husb. III. 36 A farm dependent on the cattle-yard for manure. 1960 Farmer & Stockbreeder 9 Feb. 98/1 The three small cattle-yards which house the remaining 300 hogs.


9. Special combs.: cattle-bell, a bell borne by the leader of a herd of cattle; cattle-bird U.S. (see quot. 1837); also gen. (quot. 1932); cattle-bush, any of various Australian shrubs or trees used as fodder for cattle during periods of drought; cattle chips U.S., dried cattle-dung used for fuel; cattle creep = creep n. 4; cattle-dog Austral. and N.Z., a dog bred and trained for ‘working’ cattle; cattle-duffer Austral., a cattle-rustler; hence (as back-formations) cattle-duff v. intr.; cattle-duffing vbl. n. and ppl. a.; cattle-egret, a small Egyptian heron belonging to the genus Bubulcus; cattle-feeder, a mechanical arrangement for regulating the supply of food to cattle; cattle-fever = Texas fever; cattle-gate, a ‘walk’ or pasture for one's cattle, beast-gate; cattle-grid (see quot.); cattle king U.S., an owner or rearer of cattle on a large scale; cattle-leader, a nose-ring to lead dangerous cattle; cattle lick U.S., a salt-lick for cattle; cattle-lifter, a marauder or robber who practises the stealing of cattle; so cattle-lifting; cattle-pad Austral., a cattle-path, cattle-track; cattle-piece, a painting representing cattle; cattle-pit (see quot.); cattle-post, -ranch (so cattle-ranching vbl. n.), -range, -run, station, a district, tract of country, etc., occupied for the pasturing of cattle; cattle-pump, a contrivance by which cattle coming to drink, are made to raise the water out of the well; cattle-puncher, a ‘cow-puncher’; also cattle-punching vbl. n.; cattle-racket (see quot.); cattle-raik (Sc.), ‘a common, or extensive pasture, where cattle feed at large’ (Jam.); cattle-road, a road made for the use of cattle; cattle-sickness, sickness of cattle; spec. = bush-sickness; cattle-stop N.Z., = cattle-grid; cattle-tick, any of several ticks (esp. of the genus Boöphilus) attacking cattle in the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand; cattle-trail, a trail or path made by cattle; cattle-way, = cattle-road. Also cattle-guard, -man, -plague.

1872 Ellacombe Bells of Ch. vii. 154 Judging from‥its size, may it not be considered to have been a *cattle bell? 1837 C. F. Partington Brit. Cycl. Nat. Hist. II. 158 Cow-bunting or *Cattle-bird (Molothrus pecoris Swainson).‥ The American cattle-bird‥is a small bird about the size of the European sky-lark. 1932 W. B. Yeats Words for Music 12 The heron-billed pale Cattle-birds. 1889 J. H. Maiden Useful Native Plants 116 *Cattle Bush.‥ The leaves of this tree are eaten by stock, the tree being frequently felled for their use during seasons of drought. 1933 Bulletin (Sydney) 7 June 25/2 A tall shrub with dense foliage and long leaves is cattle bush. Sheep as well as cattle eat it with avidity and thrive on it. 1903 A. Adams Log Cowboy xiii. 210 We were frequently forced to resort to the old bed grounds‥for *cattle chips. 1893 N. & Q. 8th Ser. III. 151 *Cattle-creep‥, a low arch, just high enough to enable cattle to pass under a railway. 1922 Joyce Ulysses 486 What did you do in the cattlecreep behind Kilbarrack? 1940 Gloss. Terms Highway Engin. (B.S.I.) 26 Cattle Creep, a shallow subway constructed to permit the passage of cattle underneath a road or railway. 1955 Times 6 July 10/1 Big motorways like this were not going to be popular with farmers, but the authorities would‥arrange for ‘cattle creeps’ under roads which divided farms. 1878 E. S. Elwell Boy Colonists 48 Fricker‥[was] delighted to shew the ‘new chum’ how to work a *cattle dog. 1920 N.Z. Jrnl. Agric. 20 July 55 A cattle-dog which has gone lame. 1930 W. K. Hancock Australia xiii. 289 In the evolution of an Australian cattle-dog, the native dingo strain has been decisive. 1963 A. Lubbock Austral. Roundabout 40 A blue-heeler cattle-dog. 1886 Melbourne Punch 15 July (Morris), *Cattle-duffers on a jury may be honest men enough, But they're bound to visit lightly sins in those who cattle duff. 1963 A. Lubbock Austral. Roundabout 161 Horse- and cattle-duffers. 1888 ‘R. Boldrewood’ Robbery under Arms I. xiii. 165 My word, this is a smart bit of *cattle-duffing. 1928 ‘Brent of Bin Bin’ Up Country xiii. 212 I'll take no second place for any bastard of a cattle-duffing lag. 1930 Bulletin (Sydney) 19 Mar. 23/2 Cattle-duffing is as far removed from sheep-stealing as expert forgery is from snow-dropping among suburban clotheslines. 1905 Spectator 14 Jan. 47/1 In Egypt the *cattle-egret, a small white heron, is pointed out by the dragoman, and accepted‥as the true sacred ibis. 1963 Times 27 Feb. 11/6 Little egrets predominate, followed by cattle egrets and night herons. 1893 U.S. Dept. Agric. Bureau Anim. Ind., Bull. No. 1, Investigation into the nature, causation, and prevention of Texas or Southern *cattle fever. 1909 Westm. Gaz. 6 Sept. 7/3 The cattle-fever epidemic. 1817 W. Selwyn Law Nisi Prius II. 663 Ejectment for 10 acres of pasture and *cattlegates, with their appurtenances, in a close, called, etc. in Yorkshire. 1880 J. Williams Rights Common 83 The phrase cattle gate or beast gate was a popular mode of expressing the ownership of an undivided share in the soil‥by putting thereon so many cattle in common with the cattle of the other owners. 1940 Gloss. Terms Highway Engin. (B.S.I.) 26 *Cattle Grid, a system of bars so laid at road level upon the carriageway, or adjacent thereto, as to prevent cattle straying, while permitting the passage of other traffic. 1874 Chicago Times 2 Jan. 5/4 They are‥‘the *cattle kings’ of the United States. 1888 T. Roosevelt in Century Mag. Feb. 500 Anything more foolish than the demagogic outcry against ‘cattle-kings’ it would be difficult to imagine. 1921 Mulford Bar-20 Three ix. 106 Soon a bundle of handbills was on its way to the office of the cattle king. 1887 Harper's Mag. Feb. 349/1 Large blocks of it [sc. salt] are sent to the Western Plains for ‘*cattle licks’. 1860 Froude Hist. Eng. V. 195 The services of the mountain *cattle-lifter were made valuable to Exeter. 1860 G. H. K. in Vacat. Tour. 158 His every tradition pointed to *cattle-lifting as an honourable pursuit. 1931 F. D. Davison Man-Shy (1934) ii. 25 The cattle-pad‥had been worn deep and narrow by the upward and downward passing of many generations of station cattle. 1954 B. Miles Stars my Blanket xvii. 122 The one [sc. track] we were on now was nothing but a wandering cattle-pad, honeycombed with steep creeks. 1860 Ruskin Mod. Paint. V. ix. vi. 264 From that time *cattle-pieces become frequent‥Cuyp's are the best. 1883 J. B. Pash Report on N.Z. 5/1 Cattle, sheep, horses, &c., are prevented straying on the [railway] line by what is termed a ‘*cattle pit’ or ‘catcher’. This is a pit sunk between the rails and fences, about 2 feet 6 inches deep and 10 feet wide, covered by bars of wood placed parallel with the lines, and about 5 inches apart. 1865 Livingstone Zambesi xi. 223 Mosele~katse's principal *cattle-posts. 1887 Pall Mall G. 22 Feb. 11/2 The cattle ranche business has been almost destroyed. 1928 Collier's Mag. 18 Aug. 19/1 We wasn't horse breakers; we was *cattle punchers. 1907 W. H. Koebel Return of Joe 282 During no time of‥that first eventful day of ‘*cattle punching’‥did the Gunner put in an appearance. 1847 ‘A. Harris’ Settlers & Convicts 294 A *Cattle-racket. The term at the head of this chapter was originally applied in New South Wales to the agitation of society which took place when some wholesale system of plunder in cattle was brought to light. It is now commonly applied to any circumstance of this sort, whether greater or less, and whether really springing from a felonious intent or accidental. 1857 Olmsted Journ. Texas 160 Some live upon the produce of farms and *cattle-ranches owned in the neighborhood. 1879 J. W. Boddam-Whetham Roraima 114 Two boatmen who once rowed us over‥to visit a cattle ranch, were both generals. 1946 Illinois State Arch. Soc. Jrnl. July 32/1 She owns and operates a large cattle ranch. 1866 ‘Mark Twain’ Lett. fr. Hawaii (1967) 289 The whole country is given up to *cattle ranching. 1888 T. Roosevelt in Century Mag. Feb. 500 Cattle-ranching can only be carried on in its present form while the population is scanty. 1640 in Essex Inst. Hist. Coll. V. 1701 Ordered that none of the land within the *cattle range shall be granted‥to any man. 1835 C. F. Hoffman Winter West II. 130 We entered at once upon a large and beautiful park or chase (Note, called a cattle-range, if I mistake not, in Kentucky). 1948 Southwestern Rev. Summer 272 They‥had passed across a forbidden cattle range. 1905 Spectator 18 Feb. 248/1 The important feature which the *cattle-roads make even to-day in modern embankments. 1853 C. B. Hall Let. 6 Sept. in T. F. Bride Lett. Vict. Pioneers (1898) 218 Various cows and bullocks, on a *cattle run. 1887 Spectator 10 Sept. 1220 Going West to hold cattle-runs. 1944 W. E. Harney Taboo (ed. 3) 86 Roy Johnstone was boss of a cattle-run. 1903 Pall Mall Gaz. 7 July 7/1 *Cattle-sickness is alarmingly on the increase in Rhodesia. 1950 N.Z. Jrnl. Agric. July 74/1 It was in this period that cobalt was introduced as a cure for cattle sickness. 1851 Lyttleton Times (N.Z.) 1 Mar. 8/3 A Canterbury colonist‥would undertake the entire management of a *cattle Station or Farm. 1857 Livingstone Trav. xii. 220 Numbers of cattle-stations‥are dotted over the landscape. 1949 D. M. Davin Roads fr. Home 250 John worked his way round the cattlestops by the‥glare of the engine's fire-box. 1953 M. C. Scott Breakfast at Six i. 12 Presently we came to a cattle-stop.‥ Paul bumped noisily across. 1869 Amer. Naturalist III. 51 *The Cattle Tick[s]‥drop from the cattle‥along the cattle paths. 1950 N.Z. Jrnl. Agric. Sept. 196/1 Where cattle ticks are plentiful spraying or dipping should be carried out. 1878 Black Green Past. xiii. 100 Riding along a *cattle-trail on the high-lying and golden-yellow plains of Colorado. 1905 Hubbard Neolithic Dew-Ponds & Cattle-Ways 38 The length of the ascending cattle-way is a quarter of a mile or more.