From the second edition (1989):
(speɪs) Also 5 sspace, 5–6 spase; Sc. 5 spas, 6 spais, spaice, spece, 7 speace. [ad. OF. espace (aspace, espasse, spaze, etc., F. espace, = Prov. espaci, espazi, Pg. espaço, Sp. espacio, It. spazio), ad. L. spatium (med.L. also spacium).]
I. Denoting time or duration.
1. a. Without article: Lapse or extent of time between two definite points, events, etc. Chiefly with adjs., as little, long, short, small.
a1300 Cursor M. 6980 Þair faith lasted littel space. 1338 R. Brunne Chron. (1810) 213 Grace God gaf him here, þis lond to kepe long space. 1375 Barbour Bruce xi. 9 And quhen he herd‥at sic space he had Till purvay hym, he ves rycht glad. c1450 Holland Howlat 34 All thar names to nevyn‥war prolixt and lang, and lenthing of space. 1471 Ripley Comp. Alch. i. vi. in Ashm. (1652) 130 A yere we take or more for our respyte: For in lesse space our Calxe wyll not be made. c1549 Registr. Aberdon. (Maitland) II. 307 With intervale and space necessare of þe law vsit. 1634 Sir T. Herbert Trav. 18 They become whole and frolicke, in small space. 1700 Dryden Sigismunda & Guiscardo 27 To her Father's Court in little space Restor'd anew. 1782 Cowper Gilpin 242 The turnpike gates again Flew open in short space. 1812 Cary Dante, Parad. xxiii. 16 Short space ensued; I was not held‥Long in expectance. 1835 T. Mitchell Acharn. of Aristoph. 178 A ten years' truce, in short, was‥little more than space allowed for making new preparations for war. 1871 Rossetti Poems, Staff & Scrip xxx, O changed in little space!‥ O pale that was so red!
†b. Delay, deferment. Obs. rare.
c1385 Chaucer L.G.W. 440 Prol., [I] al for-ȝeue with oute lengere space. 1540–54 Croke 13 Ps. (Percy Soc.) 19 Without abode or space Bowe downe thyne ears.
†c. in space, after a time or while. Obs.
c1400 Destr. Troy 2811 Tyll þai comyn of the cost of Caucleda in spase. 1474 Caxton Chesse iii. viii. (1883) 148 In space and succession of tyme he departed to them alle his goodes temporell. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 114 Take muddy water‥& set it alone,‥& in space it wyll waxe clere. 1546–a1553 [see grace n. 15]. a1591 H. Smith Serm. (1866) I. 22 In space cometh grace.
†2. Time, leisure, or opportunity for doing something. Chiefly in to have (or give) space. Obs. a. Const. to (usually with inf.) or of.
13‥ Guy Warw. (1891) p. 556 Berard on þe helme he smot: To stond hadde he no space. c1325 Body & Soul in Map's Poems (Camden Soc.) 346 A! Ihesu, that us alle hast wrouȝt,‥Of amendement ȝef us space. 1362 Langl. P. Pl. A. iii. 164 Þenne mornede Meede, and menede hire to þe kyng To haue space to speken, spede ȝif heo mihte. 1445 tr. Claudian in Anglia XXVIII. 277 The doome of heven also yiveth space to mannys favour in the. 1483 Caxton Gold. Leg. 215b/1 Thenne she prayed‥that she myght haue space to praye. 1508 Kennedie Flyting w. Dunbar 373 To eit thy flesch the doggis sall haue na space. 1565 Cooper Thesaurus s.v. Spatium, They had tyme or space to take aduisement. a1637 B. Jonson Queen & Huntress, Give unto the flying hart Space to breathe how short soever. 1675 R. Burthogge Causa Dei 102 That very space to Repent‥but confirmeth and emboldens the stubborn and wicked.
b. Without const.
1338 R. Brunne Chron. (1810) 86 He may, tille he has space, gif it withouten synnes. 1390 Gower Conf. II. 256 Thogh thei hadden litel space, Yit thei acorden in that place. c1430 How the Good Wijf in Babees Bk. (1868) 42 To compelle a dede to be doon & þere be no space, It is but tyrannye. c1510 More Picus Wks. 26 Happly thou shouldest not liue an houre more Thy sinne to clense, and though thou hadst space, Yet paraduenture shouldst thou lacke the grace. 1581 H. Walpole in Allen Martyrdom Campion (1908) 46 God graunt they may amend the same while here they have the space. 1601 Shakes. All's Well iv. i. 98 Come on, thou art granted space.
c. Coupled with other ns. denoting time, ability, etc.; esp. in time and space, space and time.
(a) a1300 Assump. Virg. 172 Þat þu‥Ȝef hem boþe wille and space, Hem to amendy er hy beo ded. 1303 R. Brunne Handl. Synne 11292, Y þanke þe‥Þat hast lent me wyt and space, Þys yn Englys for to drawe. a1330 Roland & V. 127 He bisouȝt ihesu‥To sende him miȝt & space, For to wite þe soþe þere. c1386 Chaucer Pars. Prol. 64 For to yeue hym space and audience. c1450 Godstow Reg. 18, I cry vn-to ȝow‥, That ȝe gete to us repentaunce and space. c1480 Childe of Bristowe in Hazl. E.P.P. I. 121 And y shal laboure‥to bring your soule in better way, yf y have lyf and space. c1550 Rolland Crt. Venus iii. 153 Thow sall not aill, and I haif life and space.
(b) c1386 Chaucer Prol. 35 Whil I haue tyme and space. c1400 Pilgr. Sowle (Caxton, 1483) i. xvi. 14 He had space and suffysaunt leyser ynow for to haue enstablysshed procuratours. 1484 Caxton Fables of Alfonce iii, Whanne the poure man was before the Juge, he demaunded terme and space for to answere. 1500–20 Dunbar Poems xv. 32 Asking wald haif‥Convenient tyme, lasar, and space. [1821 Scott Kenilw. xxxii, ‘By my faith, time and space fitting, this were a good tale to tell,’ said Leicester.]
3. With the (that, etc.): a. The amount or extent of time comprised or contained in a specified period. Const. of, or with preceding genitive.
(a) c1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 3933 Þe space of alle ane hale yhere. 1340–70 Alex. & Dind. 885 Þe space of hure liuus. a1425 tr. Arderne's Treat. Fistula, etc. 91 Late it stande stille without mouyng by þe space of a ‘pater noster’. 1484 Caxton Fables of Alfonce i, [He] festyed hym by the space of xiiij dayes. 1515 Sel. Cases Star Chamb. (Selden) II. 98 He bought the space of xxti yere Irne‥and Retailled the same. 1578 Lyte Dodoens 28 The leaves‥dronken in wine by the space of seven dayes healeth the Jaundes. 1604 E. G[rimstone] D'Acosta's Hist. Indies iii. xvii. 174 In the water whereof, you cannot indure to hold your hand, the space of an Ave Maria. 1638 Junius Paint. Ancients 99 For the space of many generations it hath been a shop of Arts and Artists. 1726 Swift Gulliver iii. iii. 197 The former revolves in the space of ten hours. 1793 Smeaton Edystone L. §344 In the space of a tide, the salt water has not time to‥return. 1832 Brewster Nat. Magic xii. 311 In the space of twenty minutes the eggs were roasted quite hard. 1837 P. Keith Bot. Lex. 128 He found that sprigs‥became quite dead in the space of a day.
(b) c1386 Chaucer Man of Law's T. 916 Duryng the metes space, The child stood lokyng in the kynges face. c1450 St. Cuthbert (Surtees) 3617 Before many ȝere space. 1500–20 Dunbar Poems xxiii. 26 Thow seis thir wrechis sett‥To gaddir gudis in all thair lyvis space. 1576 Fleming Panopl. Epist. 27 Who in seuen dayes space lost two sonnes. 1625 in Foster Eng. Factories India (1909) III. 101 Within an howers space shee was burnt to the water. a1648 Ld. Herbert Hen. VIII (1683) 45 He had but a Winter's Space; for the War was to begin the next Spring. 1820 Keats St. Agnes xvii, In a moment's space. 1825 Scott Betrothed xxxi, There was more than three hours' space to the time of rendezvous.
b. The amount of time already specified or indicated, or otherwise determined.
1338 R. Brunne Chron. (1810) 305 Bituex prime & none alle voide was þe place. Þe bataile slayn & done alle with~in þat space. 1382 Wyclif Eccl. iii. 1 Alle thingus han time, and in ther spaces passen alle thingus vnder the sunne. c1430 Lydg. Min. Poems (Percy Soc.) 142 Al the space the masse was seyeng. 1545 Reg. Privy Council Scot. I. 16 For payment of the saidis horsemen during the said space. 1586 A. Day Eng. Secretary ii. (1625) 27, I thought‥I might in this space haue found a season conuenient. 1688 Holme Armoury iii. 221 Their [sc. Jews] Custome is before Marriage to be contracted and after some space to be Married. 1712 W. Fleetwood Four Serm. Pref. p. viii, That precious Life, had it pleased God to have prolonged it to the usual Space. 1737 Gentl. Mag. VII. 690/2 The Expence of the Fleet within the same Space, exceeded 270,000l. 1823 Scott Quentin D. xxiv, In less than the space we have mentioned, the Count‥came back to the verge of the forest. 1851 Longfellow Gold. Leg. ii. Poems (1910) 467 Forty years‥Have I been Prior‥, But for that space Never have I beheld thy face!
†c. in the mean space, meantime, meanwhile. Obs. (Cf. mean a.2 2.)
1538 Elyot, Interim, in the mean space or time, in the mean season. 1585 T. Washington tr. Nicholay's Voy. i. xx. 26 In the mean space‥we went to see the towne. 1612 Shelton Quix. i. i. vi, In the mean Space, Gossip, you may keep them at your House. a1656 Ussher Ann. vii. (1658) 815 In the mean space Piso went about in vain, to assaile the Navy. 1760–72 H. Brooke Fool of Qual. (1809) IV. 70 God was pleased, in the mean space, to cut off all debate.
ellipt. 1600–6 [see mean a.2 2]. 1637 Heywood Pleas. Dial. i. Wks. 1874 VI. 99 Meane space, What did the passengers? 1675 Hobbes Odyssey x. 537 Mean space Circe a Ram and black Ewe there had ty'd.
4. a. With a and pl.: A period or interval of time.
When used without adj. usually implying a period of short duration.
13‥ Coer de L. 6123 Withinne a lytyl space‥The castel become on a fyr al. c1374 Chaucer Troylus i. 505 But whan he had a space left frome his care, Thus to hymsilf full ofte he ganne complaine. c1400 Destr. Troy 10131 A space for his spilt men spedely to graue. c1450 Holland Howlat 112 To schape me a schand bird in a schort space. c1475 Rauf Coilȝear 334 He kneillit doun in the place. Thankand God ane greit space. 1526 Tindale Acts xv. 33 After they hadde taryed there a certayne space. 1568 Grafton Chron. II. 259 He and his defended themselues‥a long space. 1633 Verney Mem. (1907) I. 77 God hath afflicted you with many sad crosses within a short space. 1697 Dryden Virg. Georg. iii. 117 Like Diligence requires the Courser's Race; In early Choice; and for a longer Space. 1719 in W. S. Perry Hist. Coll. Amer. Col. Ch. I. 219 For a considerable space no one could be heard. 1779 Mirror No. 8, After a space, I tired of walking by the Red Sea. 1833 Act 3 & 4 Will. IV, c. 46 §80 For any space not exceeding thirty days. 1852 Mrs. Stowe Uncle Tom's C. ix, When she found a space to say something to her husband. 1873 Hamerton Intell. Life i. v. 28 The incompatibility‥is often very marked if you look at small spaces of time only; but if you consider broader spaces, such as a lifetime, then the incompatibility is not so marked.
b. With of. (Freq. a space of time.)
c1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 436 Þer þre partes er þre spaces talde Of þe lyf of ilk man. c1386 Chaucer Clerk's T. 47, I dar the better ask of yow a space Of audience. c1500 Melusine 335 Nerbonne where he rested hym a lytel space of tyme. 1565 Cooper Thesaurus s.v. Intercapedo, After a space of time. 1602 Patericke tr. Gentillet's Disc. 90 In this contestation‥remained their affaires by a long and great space of yeares. 1657 Sparrow Bk. Com. Prayer (1661) 244 A good space of time to do it in. 1708 Swift Proc. Bickerstaff Wks. 1755 II. i. 166 After a competent space of staring at me. 1818 Scott Br. Lamm. x, The intervention of an unusual space of sobriety. 1831 —— Cast. Dang. ix, An intermediate space of punishment. 1880 Sayce Introd. Sci. Lang. I. 230 The number of the vibrations in any given space of time.
c. In the advb. phr. (for) a space.
(a) c1440 York Myst. xiv. 97 A starne to be schynyng a space. 1515 Barclay Egloges iii. (1570) Bvj/2 Els must he rise and walke him selfe a space. a1548 Hall Chron., Hen. VIII, 238b, She with all the Ladyes entered the tentes, and there warmed them a space. 1667 Milton P.L. ii. 717 Hov'ring a space, till Winds the signal blow. 1720 Pope Iliad xviii. 389 Yet a space I stay, Then swift pursue thee on the darksome way. 1814 Scott Ld. of Isles v. xxxiii, He paused a space, his brow he cross'd. 1883 Longman's Mag. July 270 Knights!‥leave him lying here a space.
(b) 1575 Mirr. Mag., Q. Cordila xxv, If I departed for a space withall. ?1690 T. Watson in Spurgeon Treas. Dav. Ps. cxxxvii. 1 The other leaves‥for a space hang down their heads. 1818 Keats Lett. Wks. 1889 III. 142, I have had one or two intimations of your going to Hampstead for a space. 1877 ‘H. A. Page’ De Quincy I. ii. 26 Meantime deep peace fell for a space on the family.
†d. A period of delay. Obs.—1
1430–40 Lydg. Bochas i. ii. (1554) 56 They departed made no lengar spaces,‥And gan to chose them new dwellyng places.
†e. A spell of writing or narration. Obs.—1
c1440 Ipomydon 528 Of chyld Ipomydon here is a space.
II. Denoting area or extension.
* Without article, in generalized sense.
5. a. Linear distance; interval between two or more points or objects.
Freq. with more or less suggestion of sense 6.
1390 Gower Conf. III. 107 Astronomie‥makth a man have knowlechinge Of Sterres‥And what betwen hem is of space. 1534 More Comf. agst. Trib. i. (1553) Aij, Neyther one fynger breadth of space, nor one minute of tyme from you. 1565 Cooper Thesaurus s.v. Spatium, Aequali spatio distare, to be like space asunder. 1606 Shakes. Ant. & Cl. ii. iii. 23 Therefore Make space enough betweene you. 1667 Milton P.L. vi. 104 'Twixt Host and Host but narrow space was left, A dreadful interval. 1690 Locke Hum. Und. ii. xiii. §3 This Space, considered barely in length between any two beings, without considering anything else between them, is called distance. 1751 Harris Hermes Wks. (1841) 145 Between London and Salisbury there is the extension of space. 1808 C. Stower Printer's Gram. 161 Less space is required after a sloping letter than a perpendicular one. 1876 Voyle & Stevenson Milit. Dict. 394/1 Space,‥the interval between troops when drawn up in line or column. 1892 A. Oldfield Man. Typog. iii, When space is required, a mark similar to a sharp in music should be made.
†b. Proper place or relationship. Obs.—1
1390 Gower Conf. II. 24 Min herte‥Som time of hire is sore adrad, And som time it is overglad, Al out of reule and out of space.
6. a. Superficial extent or area; also, extent in three dimensions.
1387 Trevisa Higden (Rolls) I. 51 Also Affrica in his kynde haþ lasse space. c1450 St. Cuthbert (Surtees) 8130 Also Crayke þai him gaue, With thre myle space aboute to haue. 1451 J. Capgrave Life St. Aug. 3 Asia‥conteyneth as mech in space as do þe othir too parties. 1602 Shakes. Ham. ii. ii. 261, I could‥count my selfe a King of infinite space; were it not that I haue bad dreames. 1687 A. Lovell tr. Thevenot's Trav. ii. 78 Large Houses‥which take up a great deal of space because of the spaciousness of the Gardens. 1728 Chambers Cycl., Space, in Geometry, is the Area of any Figure. 1815 J. Smith Panorama Sci. & Art II. 42 The more it is heated, the more space it takes up. 1845 Stoddart Gram. in Encycl. Metrop. I. 7/1 We are so constituted, that we cannot conceive certain objects otherwise than as occupying space.
b. Extent or area sufficient for some purpose; room. Also const. to with inf.
c1374 Chaucer Troylus i. 714 Certeynly no more hard grace May sit on me, for why? there is no space. c1385 —— L.G.W. 1999 Ariadne, [He] hath Rovme and eke space To welde an axe or swerde. 1573–80 Tusser Husb. (1878) 91 Leaue space and roome, to hillock to coome. 1610 Shakes. Temp. i. ii. 492 Might I but through my prison once a day Behold this Mayd:‥space enough Haue I in such a prison. 1671 Milton P.R. ii. 339 Our Saviour‥beheld In ample space under the broadest shade A Table richly spred. 1842 Tennyson ‘You ask me why’ iv, Where‥The strength of some diffusive thought Hath time and space to work and spread. 1869 J. G. Holland Kathrina, Childhood & Youth 49 The foul demon who would drive my soul To crime that leaves no space for penitence!
c. Extent or room in a letter, periodical, book, etc., available for, or occupied by, written or printed matter.
c1530 Pol., Rel., & L. Poems (1866) 40, I write no more to you, for lacke of space. 1697 Dryden Virg. Georg. iv. 218 But streighten'd in my Space, I must forsake This Task. 1774 Goldsm. Nat. Hist. (1776) II. 298 With a studied brevity, his system comprehends the greatest variety, in the smallest space. 1866 Chambers's Encycl. VIII. 7/2 Various expressive adjectives,‥into the consideration of which our space will not permit us to enter. 1885 Encycl. Brit. XVIII. 165/1 In the marginal glosses, where it was an object to save space. 1892 Photogr. Ann. II. 279 Nothing has been omitted on the score of space.
d. on space, paid according to the extent occupied by accepted contributions. orig. U.S.
1894 E. L. Shuman Steps into Journalism 83 Articles by the beginner are nearly always submitted ‘on space’. 1902 E. Banks Newspaper Girl 202 The woman‥if she is ‘on space’ will soon find the editors with ‘no work on hand to-day—sorry—hope something will turn up to-morrow’ attitudes. 1933 E. Waugh Scoop iii. i. 259 I've only been on the paper three weeks.‥ It is the first time I've drawn any money.‥ I'm ‘on space’, you see. 1971 D. Ayerst Guardian xxv. 357 Williams represented the Guardian in St Petersburg at first on a small salary‥and then‥on space.
e. Room in a newspaper, periodical, etc., or on some other medium, which may be acquired for a specific purpose, esp. advertising.
1930 Economist 29 Nov. 1003/2 In advertising Britain is far behind America in buying space. 1940 R. S. Lambert Ariel & All his Quality vii. 168 Selling ‘space’‥breeds a very different outlook from providing programmes. 1950 Times 7 Feb. 5/5 In the last election, one company gave space to the Communist Party and the Commonwealth Party, but the main newsreels adhered to the general agreement that space should be given only to the main parties.
7. Metaph. Continuous, unbounded, or unlimited extension in every direction, regarded as void of matter, or without reference to this. Freq. coupled with time.
1656 tr. Hobbes' Elem. Philos. (1839) 94 Space is the phantasm of a thing existing without the mind simply. 1734 J. Kirkby tr. Barrow's Math. Lect. x. 176 Space is nothing else but the mere Power, Capacity, Ponibility, or‥Inter~ponibility of Magnitude. 1799 Med. Jrnl. I. 369 The necessary condition of our intuitive knowledge, i.e. that of space and time. 1892 Westcott Gospel of Life 184 All our conceptions are defined by conditions of time and space.
8. Astr., etc. a. The immeasurable expanse in which the solar and stellar systems, nebulæ, etc., are situated; the stellar depths.
1667 Milton P.L. i. 650 Space may produce new Worlds. Ibid. vii. 89 This which yeelds or fills All space. 1816 Shelley Daemon i. 251 Each [orb] with undeviating aim‥through the depths of space Pursued its wondrous way. 1829 Chapters Phys. Sci. 411 They recede so far from us, as to be lost in the immensity of space. 1870 Proctor Other Worlds than Ours ii. 36 Our earth is as a minute island placed within the ocean of space. 1901, etc. [see outer space s.v. outer a. 3]. 1924 R. Graves Mock Beggar Hall 40 May not Space be housing and sheltering millions of other beings like us, or different from us? 1959 Daily Tel. 23 Feb. 11/6 For the human body, space begins about 12 miles up, where there is not enough air left to burn a candle. 1961 ‘C. E. Maine’ Man who owned World vii. 86 Such is human psychology that a living man returning from space attracts less attention than a dead man not returning. 1962 F. I. Ordway et al. Basic Astronautics ii. 26 On April 12, 1961, a 27-year old Russian air force pilot Yuri Gagarin‥whirled once around the earth in an orbit at an average altitude of 158 miles. Some 108 minutes after launching, he had returned to earth the first man to travel in space.
b. In the phrase into space. Also fig.
1837 Carlyle Fr. Rev. i. i. i, All Dubarrydom rushes off, with tumult, into infinite Space. 1873 Helps Anim. & Mast. i. (1875) 6 The pamphlet has vanished into space. 1892 Spectator 2 Apr. 451/2 He broke away,‥and plunged, with a few followers, apparently into space!
c. In more limited sense: Extension in all directions, esp. from a given point.
1827 Faraday Chem. Manip. xxiii. (1842) 586 It is with equal difficulty that they throw off their heat by radiation into space or to other bodies. 1854 Tomlinson Arago's Astron. 95 Suppose the body A is projected‥into free space. 1885 C. Leudesdorf Cremona's Proj. Geom. 33 In the above the geometric forms are supposed to lie in space.
** In particularized or limited senses.
9. A certain stretch, extent, or area of ground, surface, sky, etc.; an expanse.
13‥ K. Alis. 7146 (Laud MS.), On a pleyne he cheseþ a place, Þat biclippeþ a mychel space. 1382 Wyclif Josh. xvii. 18 But thow shalt passe to the hil,‥and purge spacis to dwelle. 1432–50 tr. Higden (Rolls) I. 51 Þerfore men‥folowede not the measures of spaces but reasones of diuision. 1565 Cooper Thesaurus s.v. Spatium, Great and large spaces in wide roomes. 1577 B. Googe tr. Heresbach's Husb. 42 Though the Corne be laide‥in the floores, yet let there be a space left in the middest. 1600 J. Pory tr. Leo's Africa App. 368 In which space is comprehended the fairest, fruitfullest,‥and most ciuill part of all Africk. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. ii. xxi. 107 The water‥that otherwise would spread it selfe into a larger space. 1713 tr. Gregory's Astron. (1726) I. 154 The Stars‥, if they were ever more than seventeen in this Space, pass'd away into Comets. 1794 Mrs. Radcliffe Myst. Udolpho l, The space around the building was silent, and apparently forsaken. 1812 Byron Ch. Har. i. lxxii, The lists are oped, the spacious area clear'd,‥No vacant space for lated wight is found. 1841 Penny Cycl. XXI. 171/1 A general change of temperature in the earth itself, or communicated from the planetary spaces around it. 1878 Browning La Saisiaz 6 No blue space in its outspread‥challenged my emerging head.
fig. 1592 Timme Ten Eng. Lepers Cij, In religion there is both a centre and a space. 1727 Bolingbroke in Occasional Writer II. 28 Thus Avarice and Prodigality are at an immense distance; but there is a Space marked out by Virtue between them, where Frugality and Generosity reside together. 1856 N. Brit. Rev. XXVI. 57 These free spaces are found as well within the Established Church, as among the dissident bodies.
b. Const. of (ground, sea, etc.).
1565 Cooper Thesaurus, Raucus tractus, a long space of the sea makynge an hoarse noyse. 1665 Manley Grotius' Low-C. Wars 797 Taking into their Works‥a great space of Ground without the Town. 1697 Dryden Virg. Georg. iii. 531 So vast a Space Of Wilds unknown‥Allures their Eyes. 1708 J. Philips Cyder i. 459 Sailing the Spaces of the boundless Deep. 1746 Francis tr. Horace, Sat. ii. vi. 204 And now the Night, elaps'd Eleven, Possess'd the middle Space of Heaven. 1815 Shelley Alastor 405 A little space of green expanse. 1833 Tennyson Lady of Shalott i. ii, Four gray towers Overlook a space of flowers. 1891 Farrar Darkn. & Dawn xxxvii, The graffito scrawled upon every blank space of wall in Rome.
fig. 1601 Shakes. Jul. C. iv. iii. 25 Shall we‥sell the mighty space of our large Honors For so much trash. 1605 —— Lear iv. vi. 278 Oh indistinguish'd space of Womans will. 1818 Shelley Rosalind 952 And then I sunk in his embrace, Enclosing there a mighty space Of love. a1854 H. Reed Lect. Brit. Poets xv. (1857) 355 The vast spaces of our English poetry.
†c. With poss. pron. The place where one takes up a position, residence, etc. Obs. rare.
c1460 Play Sacram. 461 Yea goo we to than & take owr space & looke owr daggaris be sharpe & kene. 1606 Shakes. Ant. & Cl. i. i. 34 Let‥the wide Arch Of the raing'd Empire fall: Heere is my space.
d. ellipt. in pl. (Cf. sense 8.)
1821 Shelley Hellas Prol. 75 The senate of the Gods is met, Each in his rank and station set; There is silence in the spaces. 1871 B. Taylor Faust (1875) II. 6 But if there burst from these eternal spaces A flood of flame, we stand confounded ever.
e. = living space (a) s.v. living vbl. n. 7a. slang (chiefly N. Amer.).
1976 New Times 19 Mar. 36 Werner Erhard through est, has created the ‘space’ for them to ‘be’ and given them the ‘opportunity’ to ‘take responsibility’ for their lives. 1977 C. McFadden Serial (1978) iii. 13/2 Leonard had a lot going for him otherwise, and Kate liked the space he was in. 1980 G. B. Trudeau Tad Overweight, Seriously, I think I know where you're coming from, and I'd like to share that space. 1981 Gossip (Holiday Special) 31/3 The reason why I can say that so boldly is because they give me my space. They let me be me.
10. a. A more or less limited area or extent; a small portion of space (in sense 6a or 8c).
c1380 Sir Ferumb. 2247 Neymes‥ȝyf him a strok ounride wiþ-inne þe neckes space. c1391 Chaucer Astrol. i. §2 This ring rennyth‥in so Rowm a space þat hit desturbith nat the instrument. 14‥ Nom. in Wr.-Wülcker 675 Hoc intercilium, the space betwene the eyn. 1483 Cath. Angl. 351/1 Þe Space be-twene sculders, jnterscapulum. 1530 Palsgr. 273/2 Space bytwene the eyes, entroeil. 1577 B. Googe tr. Heresbach's Husb. 42 Leauing open a space for twoo doores. 1594 T. B. La Primaud. Fr. Acad. II. 150 That there might bee a more free and easie space for the motion of the animal spirite. 1706 Phillips (ed. Kersey) Vacuum Disseminatum, or Interspersum, i.e. small void Spaces spread about between the Particles of Bodies. 1728 Chambers Cycl. s.v. Area, The Elliptic Space PSD being drawn equal to the other ASB. 1827 Faraday Chem. Manip. vi. (1842) 179 Even the space left open round the neck may be closed when desirable. 1845 Lindley Sch. Bot. (1854) 16 A viscid secreting space called the stigma. 1879 G. C. Harlan Eyesight iii. 37 The most sensitive portion is a small space directly in the line of vision, called the yellow spot.
b. A part or portion marked off in some way; a division, section.
c1391 Chaucer Astrol. i. §20 Next thise azymutz‥ben ther 12 deuysiouns embelif,‥þat shewen the spaces of the howres of planetes. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. viii. xvi. (1495) 322 As the cercle that hyghte Zodiacus is dystyngued in xii spaces,‥so the cercle of the sonne is distingued in xii spaces. 1474 Caxton Chesse iv. ii. (1883) 166 He may not meue but in to one space or poynt. 1625 N. Carpenter Geogr. Delin. i. ix. (1635) 202 Spaces are portions in the Spheare bounded by the Parallel circles. 1669 Sturmy Mariner's Mag. vii. xxix. 44 Take a short space of a Ruler or Transom, and saw in one side of it a Notch. 1825 J. Nicholson Operat. Mechanic 129 Set those six spaces off upon a straight line for a base‥; set off three spaces upon the perpendicular.
c. A void or empty place or part.
1837 P. Keith Bot. Lex. 95 The‥rudiment of the future seed, not yet inclosing a space. 1850 H. Reed Lect. Eng. Lit. iv. (1855) 140 His human heart had large spaces to hold his fellow-beings in. 1888 Rolleston & Jackson Anim. Life 131 The cilia‥cause the currents of water to flow‥into the interlamellar spaces.
d. A portion of a page (in a newspaper, etc.) available for a specific purpose, esp. advertising; a period or interval of broadcasting time available to or occupied by a particular programme or advertising ‘slot’. Esp. in injuction watch this space! (freq. transf.). Cf. sense 6e above.
1917 B.E.F. Times 20 Jan. 15/2 (Advt.), Watch this Space. 1956 B.B.C. Handbk. 1957 78 Plays from the West End‥are often heard in the more ‘popular’ programme spaces. 1972 Sci. Amer. Feb. 114/1 Kant's own book was discussed in this space a couple of years ago from the paper-back edition issued by the University of Michigan Press. 1979 J. Rathbone Euro-Killers iv. 44 Where is he? Watch this space for exciting revelations in the next few days.
11. a. An interval; a length of way; a distance.
1382 Wyclif Gen. xxxii. 16 Goo ȝe bifore me, and be there a space bitwixe flok and flok. 14‥ Sir Beues (M.) 1130 And Beues rode forth swith harde Towarde the cite of Damas, That was a full feyre space. 1481–90 Howard Househ. Bks. (Roxb.) 200 The space to be a fote and halffe betwene the stodes. a1533 Ld. Berners Huon lviii. 198 He was a grete space before all his company. 1585 T. Washington tr. Nicholay's Voy. iii. viii. 82 [They] go backwarde a certeine space. 1604 E. G[rimstone] D'Acosta's Hist. Indies i. vi. 20 The firme land runnes an infinite space. 1634 Sir T. Herbert Trav. 29 The space from one Boa [buoy] to another, is an hundred paces or more. 1743 W. Emerson Fluxions 109 That is, the Space is always as the Square of the Time. 1807 Wordsw. White Doe vi. 161 Apart, some little space, was made The grave where Francis must be laid. 1810 Scott Let. in Lockhart (1837) II. viii. 304 It corresponds‥very commonly with the proper and usual space between comma and comma. 1842 Thornton Mod. Cabinet Arts 159 An appreciable difference in the space which separates the stars.
b. Const. of (the precise distance).
1382 Wyclif Gen. xxx. 36 He‥putte a space of thre daies weye bitwix hem and his dowȝtir husboond. c1440 Ipomydon 1466 He had not slepyd‥Not the space of a myle [etc.]. 1483 Sc. Acts, Jas. III (1875) XII. 32/2 He sal nocht cum‥to þe space of sex myle neir þe place. 1526 Tindale Rev. xiv. 20 Bloud cam out‥by the space off a thowsande and iiij score furlongs. 1627 Reg. Privy Council Scot. Ser. ii. VIII. 402 He wes caryed doun in the streame thairof abone ane pair of buttis speace.
c. from space to space, at (regular) intervals.
1763 Mills Pract. Husb. IV. 368 To hang upon the vines, from space to space (the nearer the better), phials half filled with sugared water. 1814 Scott Wav. ix, A heavy balustrade, ornamented from space to space with huge grotesque figures of animals. 1831 —— Ct. Rob. xvii, A long,‥arched passage, well supplied with air from space to space.
d. A short distance.
1813 Scott Rokeby i. vii, Now Oswald stood a space aside. 1836 J. H. Newman Par. Serm. III. vii. 105 He did not merely approach a space, and then stand as a coward.
†12. Course, custom, procedure. Obs. rare.
13‥ E.E. Allit. P. B. 755, I schal my þro steke, & spare spakly of spyt in space of my þewez. c1386 Chaucer Prol. 176 This ilke monk leet olde thinges pace, And helde after the newe world the space.
13. The dimensional extent occupied by a body or lying within certain limits.
1530 Palsgr. 273/2 Space of ones body, corpsage. 1675 R. Burthogge Causa Dei 28 Some of the Platonists‥affirmed that the Place of Hell was all that space between the Moon‥and This. 1678 Hobbes Decam. Wks. 1845 VII. 91 They cannot be parted except the air‥can enter and fill the space made by their diremption. 1715 tr. Gregory's Astron. (1726) II. 702 That all the Air‥is compress'd into the Space ABZX. 1823 Lamb Elia ii. Old Margate Hoy, The things do not fill up that space, which the idea of them seemed to take up in his mind. 1842 Loudon Suburban Hort. 193 If we‥take the space rendered opaque by the wood at 21 per cent.
14. Mus. One or other of the degrees or intervals between the lines of a staff.
1597 Morley Introd. Mus. 4 You must then recken downe from the Cliefe,‥assigning to euerie space and rule a seuerall Keye. 1662 Playford Skill Mus. i. i. 3 The Gam-ut is drawn upon fourteen Rules, and their Spaces. 1728 Chambers Cycl. s.v. Staff, Each Line and Space he [Guido Aretino] mark'd at the beginning of the Staff with Gregory's Seven Letters. 1782 F. Burney Cecilia x. x, All that torment of first and second position, and E upon the first line, and F upon the first space! 1848 Rimbault Pianoforte 15 The additional lines and spaces above and below the staff. 1883 Grove's Dict. Mus. III. 647/2 The spaces in the treble stave make the word face.
15. a. An interval or blank between words, or lines, in printed or written matter.
1676 J. Moxon Print Lett. 7 The Distance between one word and another is called a Space. 1706 Phillips (ed. Kersey), A Blank, a void space in Writing. 1791 Boswell Johnson an. 1748 (Oxf. ed.) I. 128 The words‥having been first written down with spaces left between them, he delivered in writing their etymologies [etc.]. 1849 Craig, Leads‥[do] not make any impression in printing, but leave a white space where placed. 1908 [Miss Fowler] Betw. Trent & Ancholme 21 Leaving a space for his own name.
b. Typog. One or other of certain small pieces of cast-metal, of various thicknesses and shorter than a type, used to separate words (or letters in a word), and also to justify the line.
1676 Moxon Print Lett. 11 You must indent your Line four Spaces at least. 1683 —— Mech. Exerc., Printing xxii. ⁋4 Thin-spaces being‥Cast only that the Compositer may Justifie his Lines the Truer. 1771 Luckombe Hist. Print. 278 We may count four sorts of Spaces for composing,‥besides Spaces for justifying, called Hair Spaces. 1808 C. Stower Printer's Gram. 161 Spaces are cast to such a regular gradation, that no excuse can be offered‥for irregular spacing. 1892 A. Oldfield Man. Typog. ii, There are five kinds of spaces: the en quadrat; thick space‥; middle or 4-em spaces‥; thin or 5-em spaces‥; and hair spaces.
c. Telecommunications. An interval between consecutive marks in a mark-space signalling system such as telegraphy. Opp. mark n.1 13e.
1859, etc. [see mark n.1 13e]. 1906 A. E. Kennelly Wireless Telegr. xi. 153 A dash has the length of three dots, and the space separating dots or dashes in a letter are [sic] of dot length.‥ The space separating adjacent letters is three dots long and the space separating words, six dots long. 1954 Electronic Engin. XXVI. 230/1 The principle‥is to explore the centre of each received signal element‥to determine whether it is ‘mark’ or ‘space’, and use the information so obtained to initiate new signals of correct length. 1968 D. C. Green Radio & Line Transmission (A) xvi. 292 [In the Murray code] each character is represented by a combination of five signal elements that may be either a mark or a space. In Great Britain a mark is represented by a negative potential or the presence of a tone and a space is represented by a positive potential or the absence of a tone.
16. In specific uses (see quots.).
For half-, quarter-space see half- II. n, quarter n. 31.
1846 Jrnl. R. Agric. Soc. VII. 207 (Short-horns), The part commonly called ‘the space’ from the hip to the rib is generally recommended to be short. 1883 M. P. Bale Saw-Mills 336 Space, the space is the distance from one saw tooth to another, measured at the points. 1884 Coues N. Amer. Birds 87 The former places [on a bird's skin] are called tracts or pterylæ‥, the latter, spaces or apteria. 1899 Allbutt's Syst. Med. VI. 10 In some cases a distinct pulsation may also be felt in the second left [intercostal] space.
17. Math. An instance of any of various mathematical concepts, usu. regarded as a set of points having some specified structure; cf. metric space, topological space, vector space.
1911 Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. XII. 287 It is not always necessary to set up a definition of distance for the Hilbert space; for other domains of objects to do so might be very difficult or even impossible. 1927 Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. XXXIII. 14 The Hilbert space of infinitely many dimensions in which the coordinates x1, x2, x3,…, xn,…of each point are subject to the condition that the sum of their squares be a convergent series is a metric space in which distance is defined by the formula [etc.]. 1932 M. H. Stone Linear Transformations in Hilbert Space i. 1 The word ‘space’ has gradually acquired a mathematical significance so broad that it is virtually equivalent to the word ‘class’, as used in logic. 1964 A. P. & W. Robertson Topological Vector Spaces i. 5 A topological space is a set provided with a structure that enables convergence and continuity to be considered. 1968 P. A. P. Moran Introd. Probability Theory i. 2 The experiment can turn out in one of a‥number of exclusive ways which we denote as E1, E2, E3,…, and which we call the ‘elementary events’. The set of all such events is called the ‘space’ of elementary events.
III. attrib. and Comb.
18. Simple attrib. a. In the sense of ‘used for spacing (in printing, typing, etc.)’, as space-band, space-bar, space-gauge, space-key, space-line, space-rule; also ‘used for holding spaces’, as space-barge, space-box, space-paper.
1771 Luckombe Hist. Print. 282 Care should be taken by a Founder to cast Space rules to a true Straight-line. 1798 Thorne Spec. Printing Types, Space lines, 4 to english and 4 to pica. 1825 Hansard Typographia Index, Leads or metal space lines. 1858 Simmonds Dict. Trade, Space-lines, printers' leads for justifying, or filling up lines or words, made from 4 to 12 in pica. Ibid., Space-rule, a thin piece of metal, type-height, of different lengths, used by compositors for making a delicate line in algebraic and other formulæ. 1875 Knight Dict. Mech. 2677/1 By holding the space-key [of a type-writer] down while an ‘I’ and ‘S’ are struck. 1888 Jacobi Printers' Vocab. 129. 1888 J. Harrison Man. Type-Writer 18 In front of the four banks of keys there is a narrow strip of wood which is called the ‘space-bar’. Ibid. 25 The ‘space-gauge’ is a little thumb-piece at the extreme right of the carriage. 1895 E. Collyns Typists' Man. 17 The space between the lines is regulated by the ‘Space Gauge’. 1904 C. T. Jacobi Printing (ed. 3) x. 132 A stationary box‥contains a series of space-bands. 1919 B. De Bear Typewriting 22 You depress the space-bar whenever you want to leave a space in a line of the work. 1930 Daily Express 23 May 4/6 Spacebands are pushed up to fill out the line to the required width, and then the whole line is automatically conveyed to the face of a mould and filled with molten metal. 1957 Encycl. Brit. XVIII. 502/2 By touching another key, a double wedge spaceband is placed between the words. 1962 Which? Dec. 359/2 The space bar‥moved the carriage exactly half a space when depressed, the other half when released.
b. Relating to space as a general concept or relation, as space-consciousness, space continuum, space-effect, space-element, space harmony, space-image, space music, space-occupancy, space-perception, space-relation, space-sensation, space-sense, space-symmetry, space-value, etc.
1862 Spencer First Princ. ii. v. §59 (1875) 189 We can mentally diminish the velocity or space-element of motion. 1865 S. H. Hodgson Time & Space ii. 65 Their space-relations are not capable of analysis into relations of time. Ibid. 75 The space-senses sight and touch‥are brought into play simultaneously with the other senses. 1871 Spencer Princ. Psychol. (1872) II. vi. xiv. 194 The various structures fitting the infant for apprehensions of space-relations. Ibid. 196 Some space-consciousness accompanies the sensation of taste. 1872 Green Lett. (1901) 338 The most wonderful church in point of space-effect (if I may coin the word) I ever saw. 1875 G. H. Lewes Probl. Life & Mind II. 278 What is signified in speaking of material extension is space-occupancy. 1884 tr. Lotze's Metaph. 286 It is essential that the directions‥should be unmistakably distinguished in the space-image. 1886 W. James Let. 12 Sept. in R. B. Perry Tht. & Char. W. James (1935) I. 604 Of already written things I have a long-finished article on space perception, [etc.]. 1890 —— Princ. Psychol. II. xx. 195 Let the movement bc, of a certain joint, derive its absolute space-value from the cutaneous feeling it is always capable of engendering. Ibid. 219 We must‥seek to discover by what means the circumstances can so have transformed a space-sensation. 1893 Month Apr. 483 It is contrary to all our experience of space-occupancy. 1911 W. James Some Probl. Philos. xi. 182 God, as the orthodox believe, created the space-continuum, with its infinite parts already standing in it, by an instantaneous fiat. 1924 R. M. Ogden tr. Koffka's Growth of Mind 72 Psychology of space-perception. 1932 F. L. Wright Autobiogr. ii. 145 Freedom of floorspace and elimination of useless heights worked a miracle in the new dwelling place.‥ An entirely new sense of space values in architecture came home. 1933 H. Read Art Now ii. 78 At our period the artist‥had to infer the extension of plane surfaces‥the placing of all objects in a space continuum. 1957 —— Tenth Muse xxxi. 279 A distinction between an aesthetic consciousness determined by time-sense (music and poetry) and an aesthetic consciousness determined by space-sense (the plastic arts). 1963 Times 30 Apr. 15/1 A ‘poème plastique’, written in 1918, uses the very up-to-date idea of instrumental units separated in space; a kind of early stereophonic, space music. 1965 W. Lamb Posture & Gesture iv. 56 The process of variation, sometimes under the heading Narrow-Wide, is recognized and figures as a component in ‘Space Harmonies’. 1977 ‘J. le Carré’ Hon. Schoolboy xix. 467 Jerry‥walked into the reception room.‥ Space music was playing and there was even conversation under it. 1979 Nature 11 Oct. 433/1 Depending on the symmetry of the lattice and of the arrangement of the atoms within each cell, a crystal is assigned to one of the 230 possible space-symmetry groups.
c. In applied mathematics, as space-centrode, space-coordinate, space-derivative, space-integral, space-inversion, space-locus, space-path, space-point, etc.
1873 J. C. Maxwell Electr. & Magnetism II. 187 The work done by the force J 1 during the impulse is the space integral of the force. 1881 Ibid. (ed. 2) I. 16, I shall call the vector J the space-variation of the scalar function ψ. 1882 Minchin Unipl. Kinemat. 41 Notation for Space-Points and for Body-Points. Ibid. 87 The rolling of the Body Centrode on the Space Centrode. 1888 Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1887 507 Certain relations which held between the fluid velocities u, v, w, and their space-derivatives at any point of a rigid boundary. 1967 Condon & Odishaw Handbk. Physics (ed. 2) ii. vi. 41/1 The Minkowski matrix η is a Lorentz matrix which defines the space-inversion transformation xʹ = − x, yʹ = − y, zʹ = − z, tʹ = − t. 1968 M. S. Livingston Particle Physics vii. 137 Scientists, philosophers, and others have been interested in the significance of space-inversion invariance. 1970 G. K. Woodgate Elem. Atomic Struct. iii. 41 And ri is the space-co-ordinate of the incident wave at the position of the ith electron.
d. orig. U.S. In the sense ‘paid by or calculated upon the extent of space occupied’, as space-artist, space-writer; space-bill, space rate, space writing; relating to the purchase of (advertising, etc.) space, as space-buyer, space salesman.
1887 Westm. Rev. Oct. 858 The general substitution of ‘space writing’ for the work of salaried reporters. 1895 S. R. Hole Tour Amer. 190 News editors, copy-readers, and space-writers. 1902 E. Banks Autobiogr. Newspaper Girl 207 [By] the ‘guarantee space’ system‥a member of the staff is guaranteed a stipulated sum of money every week, and as much over that amount as he or she makes by writing at ordinary or special space-rates. Ibid. 233 Space artists get paid two dollars a single-column cut. 1934 S. Beckett More Pricks than Kicks 92 ‘Well’ insisted the space~writer. 1939 F. M. Ford Let. 14 Mar. (1965) 316 You can be certain of occupying a certain space in the pages of the Review and being paid at the usual‥space rates. 1948 G. V. Galwey Lift & Drop i. 11 Mrs Lawson, the space~buyer of Rooster's. 1954 Koestler Invisible Writing iv. xxxv. 377 Dr. Magnus‥was now space-salesman for an obscure little Polish gazette. 1972 G. Bromley In Absence of Body iii. 41 He's the chief space buyer. 1979 Amer. Film July–Aug. 55/1 ‘Now who in the audience will know what a space salesman is?’ quizzed Jaffe; a space salesman sells advertising space in a magazine.
e. In sense 8a, outer space regarded as a field for human activity; (many of these formations are modelled on analogous uses of air, air-): space agency, space biology, space bus, space conquest, space-crew, space doctor, space exploration, space explorer, space journey, space law, space lifeboat, space liner, space museum, space navigation, space navigator, space pilot, space relay, space research, space science, space scientist, space taxi, space technology, space travel, space traveller, space tug, etc.
1958 Science 11 Apr. 807/2 Herbert F. York‥has been named chief scientist of the Defense Department's new space agency. 1970 Times 15 Apr. 1/5 This firm decision was taken today by the space agency in preference to the much riskier feat of attempting a landing a day earlier after a faster return. 1960 IRE Trans. Military Electronics IV. 284/2 To gain some insight into the problems‥ultimately to be studied in space biology, using these missiles as experimental tools. 1977 J. Todd in S. Brand Space Colonies 49/2 During the hey-day of interest in space exploration (summer 1962) a symposium on the ecological aspects of space biology was convened. 1961 New Scientist 27 July 216 Ultimately, the space bus named Ranger will find its way to the moon, running on electric power drawn from the sun. 1967 Boston Sunday Globe 23 Apr. 1/4 Komarov, 40, spent 24 hours 17 minutes in space Oct. 12–13, 1964, aboard the Voshkod 1 ‘space bus’. 1949 E. F. Russell in ‘E. Crispin’ Best SF (1955) 209 The biped tribes‥need all their unity to cope with space-conquest. 1951 A. C. Clarke Sands of Mars x. 126 Visiting space-crews‥soon got bored if they had nothing to do between trips. 1974 Sci. & Technical Aerospace Rep. XII. 1600/2 Aeromedical problems of weightlessness and the transfer of spacecrews between Soyuz and Apollo spacecrafts are discussed. 1953 J. N. Leonard Flight into Space xi. 103 Using the scientific method of dissecting a many-sided problem into its separate parts, the space doctors discuss and study the dangers of space individually. 1964 Skylights Mar. 1 Pulmonary atelectasis—collapse of the small lung sacs—was feared by space doctors, but did not appear during the 17-day test span. 1957 IRE Trans. Mil. Electronics I. 43 (heading) Space exploration—the new challenge to the electronics industry. 1969 Guardian 7 June 2/8 Russia was spending a significantly higher percentage‥on space exploration. 1959 K. Vonnegut Sirens of Titan i. 30 The state of mind on Earth with regard to space exploration was much like the state of mind in Europe‥before Christopher Columbus set out.‥ The monsters between space explorers and their goals were not imaginary. 1975 New Yorker 21 Apr. 108/2 It has turned out that our real space explorers have necessarily been practical men. 1901 H. G. Wells First Men in Moon xx. 248 All through the major portion of that vast space journey I hung thinking of such immaterial things. 1961 Daily Tel. 6 May 8/2 Cdr. Shepard's successful space journey is an immense relief not only to the Americans but the entire free world. 1955 A. G. Haley in Jet Propulsion (1956) XXVI. 951/1 We have about as clear a vision of the space law that will prevail one or two centuries from now as Hammurabi in the 22nd century B.C. 1960 Daily Tel. 17 Aug. 13/3 Mr Shawcross also announced that he would resign as chairman of the organising committee on space law, recently set up in London. 1980 Oxf. Compan. Law 1165/2 Space law, principles of law accepted by nations as binding on them and their nationals in engaging in activities in outer space‥and in relation to celestial bodies. 1966 Observer 4 Dec. 2/7 American scientists are planning ‘space lifeboats’ to rescue the crews of disabled spaceships. 1944 E. Collins Mariners of Space i. 14 Earth's new Space Liner‥leaves Croydon to-day at noon. 1982 A. Hemingway Pzyche i. 16 The castaway‥was a former waiter on a spaceliner. 1977 Sachs & Jahn Celestial Passengers xxxii. 190 A new space museum is being developed a mile from Disneyland in Anaheim, California. 1931 J. M. Walsh Vandals of Void iv. 40 A ticklish job‥is this of space navigation. 1976 Internat. Aerospace Abstr. XVI. 23/2 Time intervals in problems of space navigation and communication are often obtained be determining the phase of binary signals. 1936 Forum & Century July 36/2 Suppose that a breed of space navigators has begun to appear on earth. 1951 A. C. Clarke Exploration of Space 82 His position is, clearly, only one of the things a space-navigator would want to know. 1962 Amer. Speech XXXVII. 43 Before April 12, 1961, the concept expressed by cosmonaut, in reference to both American and Soviet space flights, was rendered in the American press by such terms as astronaut, spaceman,‥space navigator. 1944 E. Collins Mariners of Space iii. 21 Space pilots and their mechanics buzzed bee-like in and out of their quarters. 1978 Space Picture Library Holiday Special 6 The man who rushed forward‥could do little more than break the space-pilot's fall. 1958 Listener 4 Dec. 910/1 The result implied that the moon could be used as a space relay for transatlantic radio communication. 1957 IRE Trans. Mil. Electronics I. 43/1 The development of a system to control remotely a space~research vehicle. 1982 M. Duke Flashpoint xv. 108 We've already had benefits from space research. 1957 D. J. Enright Apothecary's Shop 232 At least one writer, Robert Conquest, is exploring space-science as a subject for his poetry. 1978 Nature 16 Feb. 599/1 If the future facing space science 20 years ago lay full of hope and promise, the symposium indicated how confused and uncertain the picture is today. 1953 M. O. Hyde Flight Today & Tomorrow 100 Space scientists look to the rocket to carry them beyond the earth. 1969 Times 2 May 16/4 Space scientists have discovered six concentrations of dense material below the surface of the moon. 1952 W. Ley in C. Ryan Across Space Frontier 114 The space station‥is always spinning, and obviously it cannot be stopped just to enable a space taxi to enter one of the turrets. 1970 N. Armstrong et al. First on Moon xiv. 369 An orbiting space station and the ‘space taxi’‥to take astronauts there and back. 1958 Science 11 Apr. 803/1 To be strong and bold in space technology will enhance the prestige of the United States among the peoples of the world. 1972 Guardian 10 July 11/7 France‥and West Gemany [are] eager to embrace the most advanced of space technologies. [1929 Space travel: see space station, sense 20 below]. 1931 J. M. Walsh Vandals of Void i. 23 In the early days of space travel more than one ship was pirated. 1951 ‘J. Wyndham’ in Best of John Wyndham (1973) 196 The question of continued space-travel ships of the present types becomes grave. 1978 I. Watson in C. Priest Anticipations 13 What kind of space travel‥? Well, they can only be going to the stars. 1930 Science Wonder Q. Spring 342/2 (caption) Illustrating the journey of the space travelers from Astropol to Venus. 1949 ‘M. Innes’ Journeying Boy iv. 39 So might the earth's first space-traveller exclaim as his rocket took off for the moon. 1976 Listener 22 July 83/3 A journey of merely five light years would take about 500,000 years.‥ 15,000 generations of men and women‥would successively replace the original crew of stellar space-travellers en route. 1961 Aeroplane C. 184/1 The one-man ‘space tug’ would be used for assembling a large space-station in orbit. 1970 Physics Bull. Apr. 145/2 A manned moon station is fore~seen, as are‥a ‘space shuttle’ for commuting between the earth and vehicles in low earth orbit, and a ‘space tug’ for transport to Mars in the 1980s.
f. Applied to sprays designed to produce droplets that will remain suspended in the air for a long period.
1956 Aerosol Age June 70/2 This opens up some interesting possibilities in the lower cost, non-toxic pressurized space sprays. 1958 Herzka & Pickthall Pressurized Packaging xiv. 271 Although it is possible to produce a space deodorant which employs only deodorant perfume and propellant‥it is better to use the perfume in conjuction with glycols. 1973 J. B. Wilkinson et al. Harry's Cosmeticology (ed 6) xliv. 764 A good example of the functional use of space sprays is the aerosol room deodorant. 1974 M. O. Johnson in Sciarra & Stoller Sci. & Technol. Aeorsol Packaging xx. 541 (heading) Air fresheners and space bactericides.
19. Comb. a. With adjs. and ppl. adjs., as space-based, space-cramped, space-dependent, space-embosomed, space-spanned, space-spread, space-thick.
1683 Moxon Mech. Exerc., Printing xiii. ⁋1 Space thick; that is, one quarter so thick as the Body is high. 1845 Bailey Festus (ed. 2) 207 Visiting The spirits in their space-embosomed homes. Ibid. 217 The shade Of Death's dark valley And his space-spread wings. 1891 Pall Mall G. 26 Jan. 3/1 Our extracts, space-cramped as they necessarily are. 1931 C. Day Lewis From Feathers to Iron 45 Space-spanned, God-girdled, love will keep Its form, being planned of bone. 1958 I. Asimov Naked Sun viii. 107 Try getting rid of me against my will and you'll be looking down the throats of space-based artillery. 1962 Corson & Lorrain Introd. Electromagn. Fields 534 Space~dependent functions can also be represented with the exponential notation. 1972 Guardian 9 Feb. 3/8 The US is evolving‥an entire space-based defence network.
b. With ppl. adjs., as space-devouring, space-filling, space-occupying, space-penetrating, space-travelling, space-wasting, etc. Also with (formally identical) vbl. ns.
1799 Phil. Trans. XC. 81 The space-penetrating power is no higher than what will suffice for the purpose. 1817 Coleridge Biogr. Lit. (Bohn) 62 The soul was a thinking substance, and the body a space-filling substance. 1839 Bailey Festus 326 Space-pervading, oh! ye must be, Spirit-like, infinite. 1848 Ibid. (ed. 3) 222 Space-piercing shadow alighting on the face Of some fair planet. 1862 Spencer First Princ. ii. vi. §60 (1875) 191 The space-occupying kind of force. 1871 Fraser Life Berkeley x. 392 The presumed ontological antithesis between what is conscious and what is space-occupying. 1907 W. James Let. 14 Feb. (1920) II. 265 The magnificent space-devouring Subway roaring me back and forth. 1934 C. Lambert Music Ho! ii. 108 His time travelling is like the space travelling of a character like Douglas Fairbanks. 1938 Times Lit. Suppl. 1 Oct. 625/3 The space-travelling itself forces a more direct comparison with‥‘The First Men in the Moon’. 1949 E. Muir Coll. Poems (1960) 177 Its space-devouring eyes Pass me and hurry on. 1962 F. W. Householder in Householder & Saporta Probl. Lexicogr. 281 Others objected to them as (a) space-wasting, (b) often irrelevant and unhelpful. 1979 J. Paton Sea of Rings xv. 122 We've never encountered any other space-travelling civilisation.
c. In adjectival phr., as space-to-ground.
1958 C. C. Adams Space Flight 144 Whether bombing or space-to-ground missile attacks would be any more effective from such a [space] station has not been established. 1967 Economist 29 Apr. 479/1 A Soviet space ship that, according to some reports, was having a variety of troubles with attitude control, power consumption and space-to-ground communication.
20. Special combs.: space age, the period of human exploration and exploitation of space; freq. attrib. , applied to products supposed to be characteristic of this age; hence (nonce-wds.) space-ager, one living in this age; space-agey a., characteristic of this age; space-averaged a. Physics, averaged over a region of space; space blanket, a light metal-coated plastic sheet designed to retain heat; space-borne a., carried through space; also, carried out in space or by means of instruments in space; space-bound a., bound or limited by the properties of space; space cabin, a chamber designed to support human life in space; space cadet, a trainee spaceman; also transf., esp. a (young) enthusiast for space travel; space capsule, a small spacecraft containing the instruments or crew relating to the purpose of a space flight; space chamber, a chamber in which conditions in space or a spacecraft can be simulated; space charge Electronics, a collection of particles with a net electric charge occupying a volume, either in free space or in a device; freq. attrib. and in Comb., as space-charge-limited adj.; space club, a group of nations that has launched or intends to launch spacecraft; spec. a consortium of European nations formed to cooperate in space research and development; space colony, a large group of people imagined as living and working in a space station or on another planet; space curve Geom., a curve that is not confined to any one plane; space density Astr., frequency of occurrence per specified volume of space; space fiction, science fiction set in space or on other worlds, or involving space travel; so space-fictional a.; space-filler, something that serves to occupy an otherwise vacant space; spec. a brief or insignificant item in a newspaper or magazine; space fleet Science Fiction, a fleet of spacecraft; space flight, a journey or travel through space; space flyer, (a) a spacecraft; (b) an astronaut; space frame Engin., a three-dimensional structural framework which is designed to behave as an integral unit and to withstand loads applied at any point; †space-government, an interim government, an interregnum; space gun, (a) a large gun which projects a spacecraft into space; (b) a hand-held gun whose recoil is used by an astronaut or spaceman to propel himself; space heater, any self-contained appliance for heating an enclosed space within a building; also space heating; space helmet, a helmet worn in space to protect the head and provide air; also transf.; also space-helmeted a.; space industry, the sector of industry which manufactures goods and materials in connection with space flight; Space Invaders, the name of an animated computer game in which a player attempts to defend himself against a fleet of enemy spaceships; also, the attacking force itself; space lab, spacelab = space laboratory; spec. (with capital initial(s)) as a proper name (see quot. 1980); space laboratory, a laboratory in space, esp. a spacecraft equipped as a laboratory; space lattice Cryst., a regular, indefinitely repeated array of points in three dimensions in which the points lie at the intersections of three sets of parallel equidistant planes and every point is surrounded by the same pattern of points in the same orientation; a three-dimensional Bravais lattice; space launcher, a rocket used to lift spacecraft into space; space lift, spacelift [after air-lift 2], an act of transporting goods or personnel in space; space medicine, the branch of science concerned with the medical effects of being in space; space myopia (see quot. 1973); space needle, a small rod or fibre of conducting material in orbit about a planet; space-nerve (see quot.); space observatory, an astronomical observatory in space; space-occupying lesion Path., a mass, freq. a tumour, which has displaced brain tissue; space opera chiefly U.S. [cf. horse opera, soap opera], space fiction, esp. of a primitive and extravagant kind; an example of this genre; space-order, an ordering of points or events in space; space physics, the physics of extraterrestrial phenomena and bodies, esp. within the solar system; space-plane, (a) (see quot. 1961); (b) = shuttle n.1 8c; space platform = space station below; space-port, a base from which spacecraft are launched; (in fiction) a base at which spaceships take off and land; space probe, an unmanned spacecraft for research or reconnaissance; space programme, a programme of exploration of space and development of space technology; space race, the competition between nations to be first to achieve various objectives in the exploration of space; space-reddening vbl. n. Astr., the reddening of starlight as a result of wavelength-dependent absorption and scattering by interstellar dust; also space-reddened ppl. a.; space rocket, a rocket designed to travel beyond the earth's atmosphere; space satellite = satellite n. 2c; space-saving a., that uses space economically or tends to the better use of available room; also as n. and space saver, a device or appliance designed to this end; space shot, the launch of a spacecraft and its subsequent progress in space; space shuttle: see shuttle n.1 8c; space sick, space-sick a., sick from the effects of space flight; hence space sickness; space simulator, a device which simulates the conditions of space, or of the interior of a spacecraft; space-speak [-speak], the jargon of space technologists, considered as a corruption of standard English; space stage Theatr., a modern stage on which the significant action alone is lighted, the rest remaining in darkness; hence space staging; space station, a large artificial satellite used as a base for operations in space; space suit, a garment designed to protect the wearer against the conditions of space; so space-suited a., wearing such clothing; space-telegrapher, one concerned or connected with space-telegraphy; space-telegraphy, wireless telegraphy; space vehicle, a spacecraft, esp. a large one; space velocity Astr., the velocity in space of a star relative to the sun, equal to the vector sum of its proper motion and its radial velocity; spacewalk, space walk, an act or spell of physical activity undertaken in space outside a spacecraft; also as v. intr.; hence spacewalking vbl. n. and ppl. a.; also spacewalker; space warp, an imaginary distortion of space-time that is conceived as enabling space travellers to make journeys that would otherwise be contrary to the known laws of nature; space-washer, a washer serving to keep parts of machinery, etc., at a fixed distance apart; space wave Radio [tr. G. raumwelle (A. Sommerfeld 1911, in Jahrb. der drahtl. Telegr. IV. 166)], the radio wave that passes from a transmitter to a receiver either directly through space without reflection or with reflection from the ground; spaceway Science Fiction, an established route of space travellers; usu. pl.
1946 H. Harper Dawn of Space Age i. i. 5 We have had an age of steam-power, an age of electricity and of the petrol engine, and an age of the air, and now with the coming of atomic power the world should, in due course, find itself in the *space age. 1960 K. Amis New Maps of Hell iii. 80 The outset of the space age and the immense technological effort involved in it are obviously the propelling force of much science fiction today. 1963 New Yorker 8 June 96 The space-age, space-tested material that makes possible this smart, new look in luggage. 1980 Times Lit. Suppl. 7 Nov. 1258/4 Our space-age Palace of History—the new computerized Public Record Office at Kew. 1959 Times 9 Mar. 13/5 One of the rockets, the *space-ager firmly believes, will have him aboard. 1962 Punch 28 Nov. 781/1 A modern caravan‥trying to look zippy and *space-agey. 1946 Nature 26 Oct. 582/2 Such time- or *space-averaged statistical structures are becoming increasingly familiar to X-ray crystallographers. 1962 Corson & Lorrain Introd. Electromagn. Fields iii. 91 (caption) To find the space-averaged field intensity produced by the dipoles, we calculate the field intensity at O‥and then repeat this calculation for many other points Oʹ. 1972 Brit. Med. Jrnl. 29 Jan. 293/2 The body temperature should be slowly raised to normal, using a ‘*space blanket’ and heating pads if necessary, in a warm room. 1953 J. N. Leonard Flight into Space 157 Undoubtedly one of the great preoccupations of the *space-borne astronomers will be to study the moon and the planets. 1965 New Scientist 26 Aug. 485/1 One would have thought that the bugs could have been eliminated from the fuel cell system before it ever became space-borne. 1968 Ibid. 28 Mar. 680 In spite of considerable lobbying to make optical astronomy a space-borne science, many practising observers show little enthusiasm for the idea. 1975 Nature 22 May 287/1 With the shuttle taking up an ever-increasing share of the space budget, there is likely to be little money to spare for expanding space-borne astronomy. 1960 Analog Science Fact & Fiction Nov. 14/2 He banged it shut behind him and, feeling that he might as well continue with his *spacebound existence, walked all the way to the elevator. 1958 D. G. Simons in M. Alperin et al. Vistas in Astronautics I. vi. 301 The systems and controls required to establish a *space cabin capsule. 1961 Guardian 10 Mar. 1/5 As on previous occasions in this series of Russian experiments, the space cabin, as it is called, weighed 4·5 tons. 1974 Sci. & Technical Aerospace Rep. XII. 1013/1 (heading) Survival of infectious microorganisms in space cabin environments. 1952 Newsweek 13 Oct. 39/2 (caption) Test pilot A. M. ‘Tex’ Johnston‥resembles a *space cadet in the new high~altitude helmet and suit designed to protect pilots in the upper air. 1957 P. Moore Science & Fiction i. 18 Lucian's seamen are the logical ancestors of the rocketeers and space-cadets of to-day. 1958 C. C. Adams Space Flight p. vii, There have been space books for children—our present space cadets and future rocket pilots. 1979 Harvard Mag. May–June 15 How can I be one of the first to see these new worlds in detail and not be crawling with gooseflesh? Me, an original space cadet? 1959 Listener 15 Jan. 118/1 An American firm is given a contract to build a *space-capsule designed to put a man into orbit round the earth. 1963 Ann. Reg. 1962 398 The larger two-man Gemini space capsules, orbiting for a fortnight on end. 1977 G. Scott Hot Pursuit x. 88 It starts‥with the space capsule.‥ A Russian satellite, one of the Cosmos series. 1959 Daily Tel. 23 Feb. 11/7 Col. Steinkamp and his colleagues have been carrying out interesting tests, lasting from four hours to a week, in a sealed ‘*space chamber’. 1966 Science World 7 Jan. 10 The Air Force has been testing the ability of men to live for long periods in a new gas mixture that may be used in space ships.‥ There have been two short tests in ‘space chambers’. 1913 Physical Rev. II. 450 (heading) The effect of *space charge and the residual gases on thermionic currents in high vacuum. 1921 Ibid. XVIII. 56 The maximum space-charge limited current was the same for each [tube]. 1956 Nature 11 Feb. 285/2 The corresponding current‥for maximum space-charged-limited pulsed emission from the surface of the oxide coat is 8 amp. per sq. cm. 1962 Simpson & Richards Physical Princ. Junction Transistors iv. 54 For this reason the region AB is often referred to as the space-charge or depletion region. 1980 J. W. Hill Intermediate Physics xxii. 210 In the Maltese cross tube and the deflection tube, the space charge formed by the filament is attracted towards the positively-charged anode and accelerated. 1961 Economist 14 Jan. 116/2 West Germany agreed by the 1954 treaties not to manufacture long-range missiles. Participation in a *space club with a military potential would take the erosion of the treaties a stage further. 1970 Daily Tel. 3 Sept. 5 Britain failed to join the ‘space club’ yesterday because of a fault in the second stage of the Black Arrow rocket fired from Woomera, Australia. 1974 N.Y. Times 19 May iv. 6 The *space colonies‥would provide an alternative to earth if the earth's resources ever reach the point of depletion. 1971 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. LXVIII. 815/1 Our interest here is in *space curves that are the central curves of elastic rods. 1931 Astrophysical Jrnl. LXXIV. 268 (heading) A numerical method of determining the *space density of stars. 1978 Nature 10 Aug. 569/1 RS Canum venaticorum systems are the most plentiful binary stars known, having a space density of at least 10–6 systems pc–3. 1952 Space Science Fiction May 2/1 We like good *space fiction, and we intend to bring you the best of it.‥ The space-opera of flashing rayguns and invincible heroes has long since been overdone. 1960 Guardian 19 Aug. 5/4 A frantic urge for escape, but where to? Astrology, necromancy, space-fiction? 1979 Daily Tel. 14 Dec. 13/3 Star Trek is the latest in an increasing number of space fiction films which‥tend to find individuality. 1963 V. Gielgud Goggle-Box Affair xviii. 191 *Space-fictional horrors. 1911 H. S. Harrison Queed xviii. 232 There's a little squib about the college that may serve as a *space-filler. 1956 Nature 17 Mar. 530/2 Into the large centre well 3–4 drops of anti-serum are deposited and a glass or aluminium plug.‥ The latter serves merely as a space-filler to spare anti-serum. 1972 Sci. Amer. July 13/3, I have written some poetry, mostly nonserious, that has found its way into medical journals as space-filler. 1944 E. Collins Mariners of Space iii. 25 Space-Captain Jan Marthus of the Martian *Space Fleet steered his friend into the restaurant. 1979 J. Paton Sea of Rings 23 William Robert Mahony, ex-Captain, Space Fleet, aged 46. 1931 Wonder Stories Jan. 900/1 We know now what conditions are necessary for a *space flight.‥ After all space flying is too great a matter to be limited by national pride and jealousy. 1949 A. C. Clarke Across Sea of Stars (1959) 76 There is a timelessness about space-flight‥unmatched by any other experience of man. 1978 J. Updike Coup (1979) v. 183 The hollow head with which a mummified Pharaoh is helmeted for his space-flight. 1911 Mod. Electrics Nov. 516/1 He knew now that Fernand 60O 10 had carried off his sweetheart in a *space-flyer and that the machine by this time was probably far out from the earth's boundary. 1931 Wonder Stores Feb. 958 To old and seasoned space~fliers like Professor Galloway and myself, there was something ludicrous in all this emotional bustle‥over a little hop to the Moon. 1962 M. V. Glenny tr. Gartmann's Space Travel 130/1 The space flyer will‥encounter two opposed physical conditions: pressure and weightlessness. 1962 Listener 1 Mar. 368/2 All three American space-fliers had had to be landed in the sea. 1912 A. Morley Theory of Structures xiii. 380 (heading) *Space frames. 1967 Jane's Surface Skimmer Systems 1967–68 48/1 The craft is of lightweight space-frame construction in marine aluminium. 1974 Times Lit. Suppl. 4 Jan. 14/4 The debased standards of theatre design today and‥artists who think ‘empty space, lighting, and maybe an aluminium space frame’ are enough. 1600 E. Blount tr. Conestaggio 261 Knowing there was a *space-gouernement, with likelihood of warre. 1935 H. G. Wells Things to Come 12 The stormy victory of the new ideas as the *Space Gun fires and the moon cylinder starts on its momentous journey. 1954 K. W. Gatland Devel. Guided Missile (ed. 2) 197 All the propellant could be consumed in the first second of take-off—as Jules Verne proposed in his famous ‘space-gun’. 1968 Amer. Speech XLIII. 166 Space gun, a handheld instrument used to propel an astronaut outside the capsule. 1970 N. Armstrong et al. First on Moon viii. 180 This was where I had to use the little space gun. 1976 P. Moore Next Fifty Years in Space i. 16 It is not impossible that the space-gun principle may have its uses in the future, but it will be confined to firing non-fragile payloads off airless worlds. 1925 Sci. Amer. Mar. 162/3 *Space heaters. 1951 Good Housek. Home Encycl. 203/1 The stove‥is primarily designed as a boiling ring but it will also serve as a space heater. 1980 Amat. Gardening 25 Oct. 9/1 Electrical space heaters are extremely expensive to run at high temperatures. 1934 Jrnl. Inst. Heating & Ventilating Engineers XIII. 234 The open fire is still‥the most widely-used domestic *space~heating appliance. 1973 Guardian 17 Mar 12/5 What is especially intolerable‥is that‥electricity with a starting efficiency of only 20 per cent or so is allowed to be sold for space heating, a role particularly suitable for the 80 per cent of low grade heat that has been thrown away. 1954 Newsweek 6 Dec. 108/1 It is significant, too, that the American kid of 1954, dazzled by *space helmets and death-ray guns, has time in his daily make-believe for the mustang and the six-shooter. 1973 Times 29 Aug. 3/2 Scientists are developing a ‘space helmet’ respirator to protect miners against dust. 1979 R. Jaffe Class Reunion (1980) ii. ii. 191 Her blonde, teased, sprayed bubble hairdo‥looked like a space helmet. 1957 Time 22 July 52/1 From a sealed chamber like the cabin of a rocket ship, and from *space-helmeted human guinea pigs who live in it, medical researchers‥hope to learn answers to some fundamental questions about the body's consumption of fuel and oxygen. 1982 D. MacKenzie Raven's Revenge x. 94 A space-helmeted motorcyclist. 1962 M. V. Glenny tr. Gartmann's Space Travel 9 The *space industry‥has plans for huge multi-purpose earth satellites. 1972 Guardian 10 July 11/2 The unhappy fragmental European space industry. 1979 Los Angeles Times 23 Sept. vii. 17/1 Nobody likes to be a loser, but when playing *Space Invaders, most gamesters don't seem to mind. 1980 Guardian 2 Feb. 8/3 Driven out of the BR station buffet by bleeping Space Invaders. 1980 Washington Post 2 Sept. b1 A world-class Space Invaders player can keep the machine going for an hour. 1982 London Rev. Bks. IV. xxiv. 7/1 The advent of the Space Invaders can't mean anything except that new inventions bring new possibilities. 1966 Electronics 31 Oct. 134 Although the Gemini computers are highly flexible‥, they are not versatile enough for *space labs. 1975 K. Gatland Missiles & Rockets xv. 246 Hatches on top of the cargo compartment will open to permit Space Lab to be hinged out into space. 1979 Fortune 29 Jan. 77 In the microgravity of an orbiting spacelab, NASA will make crystals, alloys, and medicines never seen on earth. 1980 T. Furniss Space Satellites 30/2 One of the payloads the Shuttle carries is the Spacelab research station. Spacelab is built in Europe by the member countries of the European Space Agency. 1960 *Space-laboratory [see meteor bumper s.v. meteor]. 1973 Guardian 28 May 2/2 The battered American space laboratory, Skylab, cooling parasol now clutched tightly over her gold-foiled head. 1895 *Space-lattice [see lattice n. 4a]. 1923 Glazebrook Dict. Appl. Physics. IV. 18/2 In the crystals of very simple chemical compounds‥the space-lattice is directly formed by the chemical atoms. In the more complicated crystalline substances‥the space-lattice points are surrounded or replaced by groups of atoms. 1973 J. G. Tweeddale Materials Technol. I. iii. 59 Although there are countless varieties of crystals, there can be only 14 types of space lattice. 1961 Daily Tel. 1 Feb. 16/4 (heading) Joint effort for *space ‘launcher’. 1963 Guardian 9 Nov. 7/7 The Soviet Union has now apparently agreed that Governments should be allowed to license private space-launchers. 1954 ‘J. Christopher’ 22nd Cent. 65 As many as possible would be got away to those planets by a full *space lift. 1964 Yearbk. Astron. 1965 142 What then might be realized is a joint use of the nationally developed space hardware in a space~lift of supplies to obtain the first firm footholds on the Moon in the shape of a scientific base. 1949 Time 12 Sept. 29/2 The U.S. Air Force's School of Aviation Medicine‥has set up an interplanetary research section, [and] named it the Department of *Space Medicine. 1962 F. I. Ordway et al. Basic Astronautics xiii. 539 This centrifuge is unique among those used in space medicine research. Ibid. xii. 474 Other visual phenomena associated with space flight include *space myopia.‥ Looking out into the darkness of space, the astronaut would not know whether his eyes were focused at infinity or only a few feet from his ship. 1973 Gloss. Aeronaut. & Astronaut. Terms. (B.S.I.) xvii. 1 Space myopia, the tendency of the human eye to accommodate for a distance commonly of the order of six feet when in a featureless environment, resulting in potential failure to perceive objects at considerably greater distance. 1961 Daily Tel. 23 Oct. 1/3 (heading) *Space needles begin to form radio band. 1964 Space needle [see dipole 2]. 1895 Funk's Stand. Dict., *Space-nerve, the portion of the auditory nerve that supplies the semicircular canals of the inner ear. 1952 F. L. Whipple in C. Ryan Across Space Frontier 136 Our *space observatory can give us vital information as to how some stars die in a spectacular blaze of glory. 1972 Guardian 22 Aug. 2/4 A space observatory, Copernicus, was launched here today, the fourth to be put in orbit. 1961 Lancet 9 Sept. 570/1 The patients reported in this paper had small pretectal *space-occupying lesions demonstrated both clinically and radiologically. 1978 Jrnl. R. Soc. Med. LXXI. 226 These cases illustrate some atypical presentations of tuberculosis—as epilepsy, cranial nerve palsy,‥or space-occupying lesion. 1949 Sat. Rev. Lit. (U.S.) 24 Dec. 7/3 No less than eight of this year's crop of science-fiction novels are what is known in the trade as ‘*space operas’—books built round the theme of interplanetary travel. 1952 [see space fiction above]. 1960 K. Amis New Maps of Hell ii. 44 In space-opera, Mars takes the place of Arizona with a few physical alterations, the hero totes a blaster instead of a six-gun. 1969 H. Warner All our Yesterdays ii. 41 [Wilson] Tucker is responsible for the use of ‘space opera’, which he proposed in the January, 1941, Le Zombie as a name for the ‘hacky, grinding, stinking, outworn spaceship yarn’. 1978 Broadcast 31 July 24/1 The Seven-Up [TV advertisement] series‥is meant as a space opera send up. 1890 W. James Princ. Psychol. II. xx. 276 The obvious objection is that mere serial order is a genus, and *space-order a very peculiar species of that genus. 1927 B. Russell Outl. Philos. iv. 50 A written word is a series of pieces of matter, having an essential space-order. 1961 Adv. Astronaut. Sci. VI. 779 *Space physics. 1962 F. I. Ordway et al. Basic Astronautics iv. 117 An important characteristic of space physics is that it is closely related to two aspects of geophysics, namely atmospheric physics and ionospherics. 1980 Jrnl. R. Soc. Arts May 357/1 The College has now built more instruments‥making thereby vast additions to space-physics knowledge. 1961 Aeroplane C. 597 A *spaceplane is an aircraft capable of entry into orbit, using for propulsion purposes the atmosphere through which it has passed. 1978 N.Y. Times Mag. 29 Jan. 26 Designed to take off like a rocket, fly in orbit like a spacecraft, and return to a runway landing like a glider, these huge spaceplanes are expected to make the near reaches of space more accessible than ever before. 1958 F. A. Warren Rocket Propellants xi. 196 Thought of *space platforms, space ships, satellite stations, and high-altitude exploratory rockets overshadows consideration of other rocket uses. 1980 M. Babson Dangerous to Know vii. 47 She'd crashed like a chunk of rubble from an abandoned space platform. 1935 Amer. Speech X. 54/1 *Spaceport. 1943 Astounding Science-Fiction Feb. 9/1 Carew had landed him at one of the less expensive spaceports. 1962 Daily Progress (Charlottesville, Va.) 23 Feb. 11 After these few words, Glenn set out for the ride through brilliant sunshine to this space port—where it all began—and his meeting with President Kennedy. 1977 Time 30 May 45/2 For one scene, set in a brawling space-port bar, the casting director went to a London firm called Uglies, Ltd. 1977 Daily Tel. 28 July 1/6 The small spaceport at Kagoshima, at the southern tip of Japan, looked more like a station for amateur rocketry than a serious rival to Cape Canaveral. [1955 E. Burgess Frontier to Space viii. 152 We would then have the deep-space probe.] 1958 Listener 20 Nov. 822/1 Direct contact between some form of *space probe and the moon‥must be close at hand. 1977 Whitaker's Almanack 1978 158/2 A Russian space probe has revealed that the lower layers [of Venus] are extremely dense. 1958 New Statesman 6 Sept. 263/2 It was Congress, rather than the President, that took the initiative in pushing a *space programme. 1977 B. Langley Death Stalk ii. 23 A number of senators had a vested interest in seeing that the space programme continued. 1959 Listener 29 Jan. 226/2 The possible nature of Britain's contribution to the *space race. 1967 M. Kenyon Whole Hog iii. 31 If you've got something which could keep the same men‥in the capsules‥the space race would be won. 1978 Nature 9 Mar. 119/2 Czechoslovakia has won the ‘little space race’ for the third nation to put a citizen into orbit. 1959 Listener 24 Dec. 1111/2 The stars are said to be *space-reddened. In the same way atmospheric dust causes the sun to appear red at sunset. 1931 Astrophysical Jrnl. LXXV. 392 The differential absorption or *space reddening at 1000 parsecs in the galactic plane is unquestionably real. 1937 Space reddening [see interstellar a.]. 1928 Discovery June 190/1 The arguments used in regard to objections so far raised meet the case in respect of *space-rocket machines. 1936 ‘J. Beynon’ Planet Plane iv. 36 You can be sure that if they were building a space rocket anywhere we'd have heard of it. 1958 Listener 16 Oct. 606/1 A space-rocket, aimed towards the moon, is successfully launched from Cape Canaveral. 1977 ‘J. Fraser’ Hearts Ease in Death vii. 76 Mark Dunton's bed‥looked like some sort of space rocket, with tubes connecting various parts of Mark's body to pieces of apparatus. 1954 Jrnl. Brit. Interplanetary Soc. XIII. 165 Since it is theoretically possible today to design and build instrumented rocket vehicles for both orbital and escape missions, one is often asked whether there is not justification for a *space-satellite programme, such as the Americans suggested in 1948. 1962 E. Snow Red China Today (1963) lxxxvi. 723 The development of space satellite espionage and electronic detection devices had so far advanced that all essential information needed to guarantee against surprise attacks would soon be in possession of both sides. 1974 P. Cattermole All about Space Exploration vi. 74 Unmanned space satellites had been approved by the U.S. Government. 1970 Toronto Daily Star 24 Sept. 5/2 (Advt.), Just out on sale!‥ New‥*Space-saver Consolette [television]. 1921 Sci. Amer. 30 July 79/1 Home Building‥Many unique *space-saving devices are now being used. 1934 Webster, Spacesaving, n. 1936 Punch 11 Mar. 287/1 For space-saving reasons, [I] have exchanged the old edition of the D.N.B. for its India paper form. 1964 E. Bach Introd. Transformational Gram. ii. 17 The latter notation is useful as a space~saving device. 1978 M. & N. Ward Home in Twenties & Thirties 23 Cost saving was one necessity, space saving another. 1961 Guardian 29 Mar. 1/6 Russia did not give advance notice of *space shots. 1969 Times 19 Feb. 13/4 Between now and April, Mars lies in a favourable position for space shots. 1977 D. Bagley Enemy xxxii. 259 Designing a trajectory for a space shot to Pluto. 1949 A. C. Clarke Across Sea of Stars (1959) 93, I was sure I'd never be *space sick. 1971 New Yorker 27 Feb. 32 If an astronaut were made to move his hand repeatedly in the wrong direction in relation to the spin, he could easily get spacesick. 1951 A. C. Clarke Sands of Mars i. 3 *Space-sickness was a thing of the past. 1969 New Scientist 2 Oct. 28/1 The Russian cosmonaut Titov was the first to complain of space sickness in 1961. 1959 IRE Trans. Mil. Electronics III. 96/1 For the first *space simulator, it is proposed to use a combination of visual references and cabin motion to give a hint or illusion of ‘g’ forces. 1974 Sci. & Technical Aerospace Rep. XII. 37 (heading) Radiometer for measuring a wide range of irradiances in space simulators. 1966 Science 13 May 875/1 We read of ‘*space speak’ on every hand. Newspapers and magazines discuss it in their science columns, and popular fancy seems to have been captured by it. The belief is that the space effort has given us, in addition to the possibility of going to the moon, a new linguistic phenomenon. 1982 M. Leapman Yankee Doodles iii. 175 Transiting is a typical piece of spacespeak in that it makes a verb out of a noun. 1928 J. Dolman Art of Play Production xviii. 397 Three types of modern stages have‥been reasonably successful in accomplishing the true purpose of formalism. One is‥the so-called ‘*space stage’, the essential feature of which is light, so controlled as to reveal only the significant action and to suppress the background altogether in a void of darkness. The methods of the space stage are‥adaptable to the purposes of expressionism. 1961 Twentieth Cent. Feb. 121 A space stage‥a broad platform with no barrier between audience and performer. 1959 Listener 9 July 73/1 A television equivalent to Brechtian ‘*space staging’. [1929 Science Wonder Stories Sept. 365 (heading) The spatial station as a basis for spatial travel.] 1936 P. E. Cleator Rockets through Space vi. 141 So great are the possibilities of the *space-station that von Pirquet is of the opinion that the achievement of interplanetary travel‥must depend upon the construction of such a station. 1956 J. G. Porter in A. Pryce-Jones New Outl. Mod. Knowl. 135 We are to visualize a space station, a sort of artificial satellite of the earth which is to act as a landing stage for all space ships. 1969 Sci. Jrnl. Feb. 66/1 Although any manned satellite might literally be called a manned space station, the term is usually restricted to spacecraft which remain in orbit for long periods and which carry relatively large crews. 1929 Science Wonder Stories July 175/1 Normal communication by speech would be impossible. Of course, this is not true of enclosed, air-filled rooms.‥ But it is true when one is out ‘in the open’ (in the *space suit). 1962 J. Glenn et al. in Into Orbit 244 G-suits are not to be confused with pressure suits (or, now, spacesuits) which the Astronaut wears during space flight to maintain atmospheric pressure at high altitudes. 1979 D. Adams Hitch-Hiker's Guide to Galaxy iii. 25 He will automatically assume he is also in possession of a toothbrush,‥space suit etc., etc. 1951 Coggins & Pratt Rockets, Jets, Guided Missiles & Spaceships v. (caption) Switching off the electromagnets in his boots, the *space-suited chief engineer kicks off for a look at his project. 1977 Daily Mirror 10 May 19/2 A Staffordshire housewife‥saw two Space-suited people with long blonde hair looking down at her from a craft above her house. 1899 Nature 12 Jan. 249 The problem is now fair game for the *space-telegraphers. 1898 Engineering Mag. XVI. 118/1 The methods of *space-telegraphy. 1946 N.Y. Times 29 July 1/2 They are to serve as pioneers for the long-range guided missiles and ‘*space’ vehicles. 1959 Daily Tel. 23 Feb. 11/7 Protective clothing‥will be needed to help guard a man against the heavy G forces imposed on him because of the great thrust upwards that a space vehicle will develop. 1959 Times 15 Sept. 11/3 In putting a space vehicle on to the moon the Russians have provided the most complete‥proof of the length of the lead that they now hold. 1977 ‘M. Underwood’ Fatal Trip xx. 117 We can often track a load of porn‥as successfully as the Americans track a space vehicle‥to Mars. 1921 Bull. Nat. Res. Council Nat. Acad. Sci. II. 196 Average *space velocities vary from 10 to 30km/sec., there being a well-marked increase in average space velocity as one proceeds from the blue to the redder stars. 1927 H. N. Russell et al. Astronomy II. xix. 652 The space velocity, being found from the proper motion, parallax, and radial velocity, demands for its determination the combination of observations made in very different ways. 1978 Pasachoff & Kutner University Astron. iii. 62 We can combine the values of velocity in the plane of the sky and in the radial direction to find the actual velocity of the star in space, the space velocity. 1965 Newsweek 14 June 30/3 Thirteen new layers had been added [to his spacesuit]‥to protect his torso and legs against micro-meteorites and the extreme temperatures on his *spacewalk. 1969 Daily Tel. 17 Jan. 1/2 The link-up was controlled manually by the cosmonauts. The two who made the space ‘walk’ reported ‘feeling fine’ after their feat. 1970 Guardian 8 July 20/7 Astronaut figures, 12 ft high, will ‘space walk’ over a quarter-mile section of Blackpool promenade in this autumn's illuminations. 1978 Nature 19 Jan. 201/3 The work aboard Salyut-6 is more interesting than his previous mission on Salyut-4, since the cosmonauts can now go for spacewalks. 1979 M. Collins Flying to Moon vi. 44 We would fly alongside the second Agena, and I would space walk over to it. 1965 Newsweek 14 June 30/1 *Spacewalker White had trouble sleeping, due to the excitement. 1965 Ibid. 21 June 24/1 He was firmly convinced that *spacewalking is an easily mastered art. 1970 Daily Tel. (Colour Suppl.) 10 Apr. 9/4 Theoretically we could now send a space-walking astronaut as an electric repair man to one of these satellites if anything went wrong. 1947 Jrnl. Brit. Interplanetary Soc. VI. 138 The next step is to explain that matter and energy are mutually convertible‥and from this it is an easy process to pass to the ‘invention’ of a plausible device which produces a ‘*space-warp’ in the opposite sense to the normal one, by means of the expenditure of energy in some form. Bodies in the region of this artificial ‘space-warp’ therefore acquire a negative weight—what could be simpler? 1953 Galaxy Sci. Fiction Nov. 53/2 He read the next one‥about a star-ship that hit a space warp and got hurled into another universe. 1974 G. Butler Coffin for Canary ix. 108 Don't unnerve me, boss. You don't believe in space-warps and voyagers back from another age. 1913 Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1912 403 His theory leads to the conclusion that there are not only *space-waves (Raumwellen) in these media, but also surface-waves (Oberflächenwallen) at the boundary surface. 1943 F. E. Terman Radio Engineers' Handbk. x. 674 The ground wave can conveniently be divided into two components, a surface wave and a space wave. 1974 Harvey & Bohlman Stereo F.M. Radio Handbk. vii. 145 The range of the space-wave is chiefly determined by the height of the transmitting and receiving aerials. 1947 Astounding Sci. Fiction Sept. 171 You can't believe‥your eyes.‥ It was a platitude of the *spaceways. 1979 Daily Tel. 1 Feb. 15/2 Everyone loves Harry Harrison; the genre would be poorer without this Monty Python of the spaceways.