From the second edition (1989):
besides, adv. and prep.
(bɪˈsaɪdz) Forms: 3–4 bisides, 4 bi-, bysidis, bysydes, 5–6 besydes, -is, 5– besides. [f. beside + s of the advb. genitive, here probably a northern substitute for the southern -en of bisiden. This has been used in all the senses of beside, but is now used, in prose, only in senses 2, 3, for which it is the proper word.]


A. adv.


1. By the side; close by, near; = beside A. 1.

c1205 Lay. 5181 Brennes [wende] bisides mid his folke of Burguine. c1340 Gaw. & Gr. Knt. 76 Smal sendal bisides, a selure hir ouer. c1440 Gesta Rom. 114 Heer besydes is a foreste. c1450 Lonelich Grail xliv. 388 Iosephs in that Castel not ne was, but at anothir besides in that plas.


2. In addition, over and above, as well.

1564 Haward Eutropius vi. 52 He deprived him of a portion of his kingdom, and assessed hym to pay a great summe of mony besides. 1611 Bible Gen. xix. 12 And the men said vnto Lot, Hast thou here any besides? 1821 Keats Isabel liv, It drew Nurture besides, and life, from human fears. 1863 M. Howitt F. Bremer's Greece II. xvi. 149 There are, besides, many marble slabs with long Greek inscriptions.


b. Introducing a further consideration: As an additional or further matter, moreover, further.

1596 Shakes. Merch. V. ii. i. 15 Besides, the lottrie of my destenie Bars me the right of voluntarie choosing. 1682 Norris Hierocles 8 Besides, God is not at all Honour'd by the most costly oblations. 1774 Burke Amer. Tax. Wks. II. 384 Besides, they were indemnified for it. 1858 Bright Reform, Sp. (1876) 282 There is, besides, this great significant fact. Mod. It is rather too late to go out; besides, I am tired.


3. Other than mentioned, otherwise, else.

1596 Shakes. 1 Hen. IV, iii. i. 185 Which‥leaves behinde a stayne Upon the beautie of all parts besides. a1694 Tillotson Serm. I. i. (R.) An ignorant man, whatever he may know besides. a1704 Locke (J.) Robbers, who break with all the world besides, must keep faith among themselves. 1768 Blackstone Comm. I. 4 Knowledge in which the gentlemen of England have been more remarkably deficient than those of all Europe besides.


4. = beside A. 6. Obs. (Now aside.)

1611 Beaum. & Fl. Maid's Trag. v. (1679) 19 The blows thou mak'st at me are quite besides. 1650 Bulwer Anthropomet. xi. (1653) 184 They never faile, or cast it besides. 1660 Stanley Hist. Philos. (1701) 152/2 He was so thoughtful, that going to put Incense into a Censer, he put it besides.


B. prep.


1. = beside B. 1. Obs.

c1200 Trin. Coll. Hom. 31 Ða com on angel of heuene to hem, and stod bisides hem. a1300 Cursor M. 16878 In a ȝard bisides þe tune. 1382 Wyclif Matt. xiii. 1 Jhesus‥sat bisides the sæ. 1480 Caxton Trevisa's Descr. Eng. 6 At Stonhenge besides Salesbury. 1542 Udall Erasm. Apoph. 316b, I would‥make you roome here besides me, but that I sitte in so narrowe a roome myself. 1605 Stow Ann. 372 King Edward kept his Christmasse at Kenington besides Lambeth. 1677 Moxon Mech. Exerc. (1703) 208 Hold‥your Right Hand close besides your Left Hand.


2. Over and above, in addition to, as well as. (This and the next are the ordinary current senses.)

1535 Joye Apol. Tindale 24 Besydis thys condempnacion of me by hearsaye. 1552 Huloet, Besydes that, præterea. 1557 N. T. (Geneva) Luke xvi. 26 Besydes all this, betwene you and us there is a great gulfe set. [So 1611.] c1680 Beveridge Serm. (1729) I. 484 Besides that‥they have some part of his word solemnly read. 1783 Ld. Hailes Anc. Chr. Ch. ii. 50 St. Paul‥became acquainted with many Christians besides his converts. 1875 Bryce Holy Rom. Emp. vii. (ed. 5) 112 The Emperor, besides the sword‥receives a ring as the symbol of his faith.


b. with obj. clause.

1579 E. K. in Spenser's Sheph. Cal. Mar. Gloss., Besides the‥affection‥tormenteth the mynde. 1586 Cogan Haven Health (1636) 97 Besides that this water cooleth all the inward parts, it doth greatly helpe the stone. 1860 Mill Repr. Govt. (1865) 59/2 The representatives of the majority, besides that they would themselves be improved in quality‥would no longer have the whole field to themselves.


3. Other than, else than: in negative and interrogative (formerly sometimes in affirmative) sentences, capable of being rendered by ‘except, excluding.’

c1375 Wyclif Wks. (1880) 393 No man may putt an-oþer ground bysidis þat þat is putt [So 1382 N. T. 1 Cor. iii. 11; 1388 outtakun; Tind., Coverd., Genev., 1611, then; Rhem. beside.] c1534 tr. Pol. Verg. Eng. Hist. I. 22 England is well stored with all kinde of beeastes, besides asses, mules, cammels, and elephants. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. ii. xxii. 116 Not the act of the Body, nor of any other Member thereof besides himselfe. a1716 South 12 Serm. (1717) IV. 37 The Jews‥for ever unsainting all the world besides themselves. 1711 Addison Spect. No. 110 ⁋1 No living Creature ever walks in it besides the Chaplain. 1758 Jortin Erasm. I. 266 In the opinion of every one besides himself. Mod. Have you nothing to tell us besides what we have already heard?


4. = beside B. 4. a. Past, by. Obs.

1634 Preston New Covt. 62 Careful that none of this water run besides the mill. 1639 Fuller Holy War v. ii. (1647) 232 King Philip missed of his expectation, and the morsel fell besides his mouth. 1660 Stanley Hist. Philos. (1701) 468/2 [He] proposed sophisms to the disputants, slipping besides the sense. 1680 Observ. on ‘Curse Ye Meroz’ 5 No sooner did they perceive the waters begin to run besides their Mill‥but they turned Cat in Pan, and cursed as fast the contrary way.


b. Opposition: Out of, away from, off. Obs.

1537 Tindale Exp. 1 John Wks. II. 183 Thou mayest well, besides Christ, know him [God] as a tyrant. 1607 Topsell Serpents 769 Ælianus was a little besides the way, when he set down macrous for microus. 1641 Vind. Smectymnuus §7. 90 He tels us we are besides the Cushion.


c. Of removal: Out of, away from, off. to put besides: to put out of, do out of, deprive of.

1551 Robinson tr. More's Utop. 41 The husbandmen‥by coueyne and fraude‥be put besydes it. 1577 Holinshed Chron. I. 173/1 The Englishmen‥desirous‥to shake off the yoke of Danish thraldome besides their necks and shoulders. 1605 Bacon Adv. Learn. ii. xiv. §5 (1873) 159 Doth not only put a man besides his answer. 1654 Ussher Ann. v. 88 That no God was able to put him besides his Kingdom. 1702 Eng. Theophrast. 47 An extravagant love‥puts the Philosopher besides his Latin.


5. fig. (from 4.) = beside B. 5.a. Out of any mental state; hence besides oneself: see beside B. 5a. Obs.

1526 Tindale Acts xxvi. 24 Paul, thou arte besides thy selfe. 1535 Joye Apol. Tindale 36, I am suer Tindale is not so farre besydis his comon sencis. 1611 Bible 2 Cor. v. 13 Whether wee bee besides our selues‥or whether we bee sober. 1690 Locke Hum. Und. ii. xxvii. (1695) 186 Our way of speaking in English, when we say such an one is not himself, or is besides himself‥as if‥the self same Person was no longer in that Man.


b. = beside B. 5b. Obs.

1581 R. Goade in Confer. ii. (1584) Iiiijb, You fall to discoursing cleane besides the purpose. 1651 Lilly & Ashmole Autobiogr. (1774) 172 Its besides my task to write the life of the late King. 1699 Bentley Phal. 219 Though it be quite besides the subject.


c. Beyond; = beside B. 5c. Obs.

1564 Brief Exam. **b, Nothyng muste be brought into the Churche, besides or contrary to Scripture. 1577 T. Vautrollier Luther's Ep. Gal. 8 This thou doest besides thine office; keepe thy selfe within thy bounds. Ibid. 36 If it teach any thing besides or against Gods word. 1661 Bramhall Just Vind. vii. 196 The Pope can do nothing in France‥either against the Canons or besides the Canons. 1668 Culpepper & Cole Barthol. Anat. iv. i. 159 Tis besides nature. 1692 Locke Toleration iii. iv. Wks. 1727 II. 355 A model so wholly new, and besides all experience.