Middle English–an overview
Philip Durkin, OED
June 9, 2011
Medieval Britain had many languages. English continued to be in contact with Celtic languages on many of the internal frontiers within the British Isles. Until the use of Scandinavian languages in mainland Britain died out (the precise date of which is a matter of uncertainty), it continued to be in contact with these also. And, crucially, it was in contact with Latin and with French.
In this article, Philip Durkin provides an overview of Middle English.