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yard, n.1

Quotations:
Pronunciation:  /jɑːd/
Forms:  OE geard, ME ȝerd(e, ME–15 ȝard(e, yerde, ME–17 yerd, ME–18 yaird, (ME ȝherd, ME ȝeard, ȝord, yorde, 15 ȝharde, 15, yorte (18 dial. (Lancs.) yort), 16 yearde, 17 Sc. yeard), ME–15 ȝaird, 15–16 yarde, ME– yard.(Show Less)
Etymology:  Old English geard   strong masculine fence, dwelling, house, region = Old Saxon gard   enclosure, field, dwelling, Middle Dutch, Dutch gaard   garden, Old High German gart   circle, ring, Old Norse garðr  garth n.1, (Swedish gård   yard, Danish gard   yard, farm), Gothic gards   house, with corresponding weak forms Old Frisian garda   garden, Old Saxon gardo  , Old High German garto   (Middle High German garte  , German garten  ) garden, Gothic garda   enclosure, stall. (Old English geard   is the second element of middangeard  middenerd n., ortgeard  orchard n., wíngeard  winyard n.)
The ulterior relations of these words are uncertain. Close affinity of sense is exhibited by the words derived from the Germanic root gerd-  : gard-  : gurd-  , represented by gird v.1   (Old English gyrdan  , Old High German gurten  , Old Norse gyrða  ) and girth n.1   (Old Norse gjǫrð  , Gothic gairda  ), and those derived from an Indo-European root ghort-  , viz. Greek χόρτος   farm-yard, feeding-place, food, fodder, Latin hortus   garden, co-hors   enclosure, yard, pen for cattle and poultry, cohort n., court n.1, Old Irish gort cornfield; but there are phonological difficulties in the way of equating both groups of words. (Old Church Slavonic gradŭ enclosure, town, Russian grad, gorod town, as in Petrograd, Novgorod, Lithuanian gàrdas hurdle, fold, are probably borrowed < Germanic.)
 
The general signification of the word is ‘enclosure’, the particular character of which is usually to be inferred from the context; the simple word is thus often felt to be short for a specific compound of it (see references in the various senses).
 1.
 

 a. A comparatively small uncultivated area attached to a house or other building or enclosed by it; esp. such an area surrounded by walls or buildings within the precincts of a house, castle, inn, etc. Cf. back yard n., castle yard, chapel-yard n., court-yard n., inn-yard, palace yard, stable-yard.In Old English used in sing. and pl. = dwelling, house, home, the ‘courts of heaven’; also, region, tract (cf. middangeard middenerd n.).

OE   Guthlac A 791   Swa soðfæstra sawla motun in ecne geard up gestigan rodera rice.
OE   Beowulf 2459   Nis þær hearpan sweg, gomen in geardum.
OE   Genesis 740   Wit..forleton on heofonrice heahgetimbro, godlice geardas.
c1400   St. Alexius (Laud 108) 302   Alex..Is dweld in his fader ȝerd As a pore man.
c1480  (▸a1400)    St. Mary of Egypt 571 in W. M. Metcalfe Legends Saints Sc. Dial. (1896) I. 312   To þe tempil men cane draw; & of It til in þe ȝarde I wes cummyne, I ne spard.
1524   in J. W. Clay Testamenta Eboracensia (1902) VI. 10   A litile howse with a yerde.
1562   J. Heywood Prov. & Epigr. (1867) 100,   I kepe doggis..in my yarde.
1565   in D. H. Fleming Reformation in Scotl. (1910) 613   Part of ane yard within the abbay place of Sanctandrois.
a1657   J. Balfour Hist. Wks. (1825) II. 71   He was brought vpone a scaffold in the parliament yaird.
1711   J. Addison Spectator No. 121. ¶1   As I was walking..in the great Yard that belongs to my Friend's Country House.
a1720   W. Sewel Hist. Quakers (1795) I. ii. 96   The steeple-house yard.
1817   Scott Rob Roy II. xii. 242,   I wandered from one quadrangle of old-fashioned buildings to another, and from thence to the College-yards, or walking-ground.
1838   E. Bulwer-Lytton Alice II. v. iv. 135   Four horses, that had been only fourteen miles, had just re-entered the yard.
1842   Dickens Amer. Notes I. v. 183   An old cathedral yard.
1842   Dickens Amer. Notes I. viii. 279   A long row of small houses fronting on the street, and opening at the back upon a common yard.
1908   E. Fowler Between Trent & Ancholme 20   The small yard between the stables.

OE—1908(Hide quotations)

 

 b. spec.  (a) The ‘ground’ of a playhouse, orig. an inn-yard;  (b) Sc. pl. a school playground;  (c) = court n.1 3   (esp. in proper names, as Carter's Yard, Thompson's Yard in Oxford).

1609   T. Dekker Guls Horne-bk. sig. E3,   Neither are you to be hunted from thence though the Scar-crowes in the yard, hoot at you.
1808   Scott Autobiogr. in J. G. Lockhart Mem. Life Scott (1839) I. 41,   I made a brighter figure in the yards than in the class.
1815   Scott Guy Mannering I. ii. 27   Half the youthful mob ‘of the yards’ used to assemble..to see Dominie Sampson..descend the stairs from the Greek class.
1851   H. Mayhew London Labour II. 211/1   Every Street, Lane, Square, Yard, Court, Alley, Passage, and Place..are to be thus cleansed.

1609—1851(Hide quotations)

 

 c. Contextually = churchyard n., graveyard n.

[1617   F. Moryson Itinerary i. 145   Not farre thence is a yard vsed for common buriall, called the holy field, vulgarly Campo Santo.]
1792   R. Burns in J. Johnson Scots Musical Museum IV. 326   And now I greet round their green beds in the yerd.
1836   Hooton Bilberry Thurland I. xi. 217   The road he had taken brought him at length to the church, through the yard of which it led.
1856   C. M. Yonge Daisy Chain i. xxii,   The little..church, its yard shaded with trees.

1792—1856(Hide quotations)

 

 d. An enclosure attached to a prison, in which the prisoners take exercise. liberty of the yard (U.S.): see quot. 1828-32.

1777   J. Howard State Prisons Eng. & Wales iii. 74   Why were not the walls of the yards repaired in time, that prisoners might with safety be allowed the proper use of them?
1828–32   Webster Amer. Dict. Eng. Lang. at Yard,   Liberty of the yard, is a liberty granted to persons imprisoned for debt, of walking in the yard, or within any other limits prescribed by law.
1861   H. Mayhew London Labour (new ed.) III. 438/1   This person..took me into the yard and stripped me.

1777—1861(Hide quotations)

 

 e. the Yard, short for ‘Scotland Yard’, the chief London police office.

1888   A. C. Gunter Mr. Potter xviii. 221   They're tired of paying your old master's salary up at the Yard.
1904   J. Sweeney At Scotland Yard ii,   W. E. Monro..was one of the greatest public servants who ever worked at the Yard.

1888—1904(Hide quotations)

 

 f. U.S. A college campus or the area enclosed by its main buildings; spec. at Harvard: the Yard, the quadrangle formed by the original college buildings.

1637–9   Harvard Coll. Rec. in Publ. Colonial Soc. Mass. (1925) I. 172   Mr Nathaniel Eatons Account... The frame in the Colledge Yard & digging the cellar.
1841   Harvard Faculty Orders & Regul. 6   Collecting in groups round the doors of the College buildings or in the yard [shall be considered a violation of decorum].
1871   L. H. Bagg Four Years at Yale 27   Besides the fourteen buildings already described, the only others within the yard..were the two wooden dwelling-houses.
1902   Boston Evening Record 18 Mar. 8/4 (heading)    Out of the ‘Yard’—how the Harvard students have gone to the ‘Gold Coast’.
1942   L. V. Berrey & M. Van den Bark Amer. Thes. Slang §829.12   Campus, camp, orchard,..yard.
1947   Harvard Alumni Bull. 12 Apr. 586/2   Few people have likely ever thought of the Yard as a bird sanctuary... What of the Yard? There must be bird records.
1970   ‘E. Queen’ Last Woman iii. 163,   I found out the truth about myself in my freshman year at Harvard... There was an episode in a bar, well away from the Yard.
1981   ‘D. Jordan’ Double Red xv. 71   Stumbling across the Yard..after too much Harvard Provision Co. gin.

1637-9—1981(Hide quotations)

 

 2. An enclosure forming a pen for cattle or poultry, a storing place for hay, or the like, belonging to a farm-house or surrounded by farm-buildings, or one in which a barn or similar building stands. (Cf. barn-yard n. at barn n. Compounds 2, farm-yard n. and adj., poultry-yard.)

c1300   Havelok (Laud) (1868) 702   Þe hennes of þe yerd.
c1386   Chaucer Nun's Priest's Tale 27   A yeerd she hadde enclosed al aboute With stikkes and a drye dych with-oute In which she hadde a Cok.
c1386   Chaucer Nun's Priest's Tale 177   Oon of hem was logged in a stalle Fer in a yeerd with Oxen of the plough.
1481   Caxton tr. Hist. Reynard Fox (1970) 11,   I [sc. chantecleer] had viij fayr sones and seuen fayr doughters whiche..wente in a yerde whiche was walled round a boute.
1551   in J. W. Clay North Country Wills (1908) I. (Surtees 1908) 218   To Jhon Collin,..one lode of heye in my yarde.
1573   T. Tusser Fiue Hundreth Points Good Husbandry (new ed.) f. 23v,   All maner of straw, that is scattred in yard.
1646   Sir T. Browne Pseudodoxia Epidemica iii. xxv. 175   One of the Lyons leaped downe into a neighbours yard, where nothing regarding the crowing or noise of the Cocks, hee eat them up.
1697   Dryden tr. Virgil Georgics ii, in tr. Virgil Wks. 94   His wanton Kids..Fight harmless Battels in his homely Yard.
1749   H. Fielding Tom Jones II. iv. viii. 51   A vast Herd of Cows in a rich Farmer's Yard.
1841   Dickens Old Curiosity Shop i. xv. 173   A thriving farm with sleepy cows lying about the yard.

c1300—1841(Hide quotations)

 

 3. A piece of enclosed ground of moderate size, often adjoining a house and covered with grass or planted with trees; a garden. Now chiefly N. Amer. and dial., a kitchen or cottage-garden (cf. door-yard n., kail-yard at kale-yard n.). See also grass-yard n. at grass n.1 Compounds 2, green yard n.

a1300   Cursor Mundi 1027   Paradis..es a yard cald o delites Wit all maner of suet spices.
1390   J. Gower Confessio Amantis II. 30   And after Phillis Philliberd This tre was cleped in the yerd.
a1400  (▸a1325)    Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 12522   He sent him to þe yerd..For to gedir þam sum cale.
c1400   Sc. Trojan War (Horstm.) i. 255   Ȝardes for herbys ande for virgerys.
c1440   Gesta Romanorum (Add. MS.) xxvii. 111   He had a faire yerde [Harl. MS. gardin], that he mekell loved.
c1440   Promptorium Parvulorum 537/2   Ȝerd, or ȝorde.., ortus.
1477   in Exch. Rolls Scot. IX. 101 (note) ,   Oure landis of Auld Lindoris with the brewlandis cotagiis and yairdis therof.
c1540   J. Bellenden tr. H. Boece Cosmogr. xvi, in Hyst. & Cron. Scotl. sig. Dj,   Aqua vite..maid..of sic naturall herbis as grew in thair awin ȝardis.
?1591   R. Bruce Serm. Sacrament v. sig. T2v,   Quhat Christ suffered for thame in the zarde [sc. Gethsemane], and on the crosse.
1718   in Nairne Peerage Evid. (1874) 33   Houses biggings yairds orchyairds.
1793   R. Burns in G. Thomson Sel. Coll. Orig. Sc. Airs I. i. 17   My daddie has nought but a cot-house and yard.
1818   Scott Heart of Mid-Lothian viii, in Tales of my Landlord 2nd Ser. I. 236   Any of her apple-trees or cabbages which she had left rooted in the ‘yard’ at Woodend.
a1825   R. Forby Vocab. E. Anglia (1830) ,   Yard, the garden belonging to a cottage or ordinary messuage.
1835   J. H. Ingraham South-West II. xxxii. 88   Striped grass, cultivated in yards at the north.
1877   H. G. Murray Tom Kittle's Wake 21   My daughter, Molly tief pass, maam, den go da him yard.
1889   M. E. Wilkins Far-away Melody (1891) 11   Four..old apple-trees, which stood promiscuously about the yard back of the Cottage.
1907   W. Jekyll Jamaican Song & Story 163   The immediate surroundings of the house are called the yard. They seldom speak of going to a friend's house. They say they are going to his yard.
1932   ‘L. G. Gibbon’ Sunset Song ii. 97   The berries hung ripe in the yard of the gardener Galt.
1947   J. A. Lomax Adventures Ballad Hunter vii. 185   She says, ‘Can you cut yards?’ an' I says, ‘Yes ma'am.’ She says, ‘Go roun,..to de back.., you'll find a lawn-mower there, and then begin cuttin'.’
1956   G. E. Evans Ask Fellows who cut Hay iv. 55   The village was almost entirely self-supporting, most families living on what they grew or reared on their yards or allotments.
1980   W. Maxwell So Long, see you Tomorrow (1981) ii. 22   The rented house had no yard to speak of.

a1300—1980(Hide quotations)

 
 4.

 a. An enclosure set apart for the growing, rearing, breeding, or storing of something or the carrying on of some work or business. Cf. brickyard n. at brick n.1 Compounds 3, dockyard n., dung-yard, hemp-yard, orchard n.   (Old English ortgeard), shipyard n., tan-yard, vineyard n., †winyard (Old English wíngeard).

1378   Durham MS. Cell. Roll,   In plumbo empto pro uno aqueducto in le Hempyard.
1520   Perth Hammermen Bk. (1889) 15   Ressavit fra John Kynloch of this yeres excrestes of the yairds.
1523   Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles I. xvi. 7/2   Great leuers..the whiche they founde in a carpenters yarde.
1555   Act 2 & 3 Phil. & Mary c. 16 §7   Before the said Boate..bee lanched out of the Yarde or Grounde wherin the same Boate..shall fortune to bee made.
a1610   J. Healey tr. Theophrastus Characters (1636) 23   He hath a little yard, gravelled fit for wrestling.
1696   Cal. State Papers, Domest. 282   The porter, master-caulker and ‘teamer’ of Deptford Yard.
1748   B. Robins & R. Walter Voy. round World by Anson ii. vi. 200   A ship-carpenter in the yard at Portsmouth.
1803   Pering in Naval Chron. 15 61   The yard is paid quarterly.
1836   Dickens Sketches by Boz 1st Ser. II. 184   What can be more amusing than Searle's yard on a fine Sunday morning.
1836   Dickens Pickwick Papers (1837) ii. 15   ‘What's Mr. Smithie,’ inquired Mr. Tracy Tupman. ‘Something in the yard [sc. the Dockyard],’ replied the stranger.
1855   Poultry Chron. 3 191   Eggs from the Yards of Mr. Punchard.
1873   G. S. Baden-Powell New Homes for Old Country 194   The ‘yards’..are usually situated near the head station.
1891   W. K. Brooks Amer. Oyster 131   Around each claire is built a levee or dirt wall called a yard... This yard retains the water filling the basin.

1378—1891(Hide quotations)

 

 b. The piece of ground adjacent to a railway station or terminus, used for making up trains, storing rolling-stock, etc.; also an enclosure in which cabs, trams, etc. are kept when not in use.

1827   E. Mackenzie Descr. & Hist. Acct. Newcastle II. 722   A waggon set out for London from the general waggon-yard..every day.
1836   Dickens Pickwick Papers (1837) ii. 7   A..young man..emerging suddenly from the coach-yard.
1894   Daily News 18 May 5/4   Yesterday his cabs were still in the yard.
1903   Westm. Gaz. 8 Jan. 7/3   The yard foreman knows the capacity of each of the engines he sends out from his yard.

1827—1903(Hide quotations)

 

 c. the Yards, the stockyards where cattle are collected for slaughter, esp. in Chicago. U.S.

1865   Atlantic Monthly Jan. 83/2   The average weekly expenditure by butchers at the New York yards during the year 1863 was $328,865.
1906   U. Sinclair Jungle xv. 170   Already the yards were full of activity.
1935   A. G. Macdonell Visit to Amer. vii. 114   As in Chicago, the pride of Omaha is the Stock-yards... I was looking straight down into the Yards.
1974   ‘M. Allen’ Super Tour ii. 57   I've been called all kinds of things ever since I was a kid back of the Yards.

1865—1974(Hide quotations)

 

 5. U.S. and Canada. An area in which moose and deer congregate, esp. during the winter months.

1829   T. C. Haliburton Hist. & Statist. Acct. Nova Scotia II. ix. 392   In winter they [sc. moose] form herds, and when the snow is deep, they describe a circle, and press the snow with their feet, until it becomes hard, which is called by hunters a yard, or pen.
1864–5   J. G. Wood Homes without Hands 614   So confident is the Elk in the security of the ‘yard’, that it can scarcely ever be induced to leave its snowy fortification.
1884   Science 28 Mar. 394/1   Immense yards, containing hundreds of deer, existed along the various tributaries [of the Ottawa].
1903   Longman's Mag. July 248   [They] never failed to destroy a ‘yard’ to the last fawn.

1829—1903(Hide quotations)

 

Compounds

  attrib. and Comb.  (a) in sense 1, as yard-broom, yard door, yard gate, yard wall;   yard-dog n. a watchdog kept in the yard of a house or dwelling.  (b) in sense 2, as yard-bar, yard-dung, yard-liquor, yard-pond, yard-room;  (c) in sense 3   (Sc. and U.S.), as yard door, yard end, yard house, yard tack;   yard-boy n. a general labourer; a gardener or gardener's boy (obs. exc. Caribbean).yard-dike n. Obs. a garden wall.  yard-grass n. a low annual grass, Eleusine indica, common in ‘yards’ about houses in parts of U.S.A.; also Cynodon Dactylon.  yard sale n. U.S. a sale of miscellaneous second-hand items held in the garden of a private house.  (d) in sense 4a, 4b, esp. relating to dockyards, ship-yards, cab yards, or railway yards, as yard clerk, yard craft, yard-keeper, yard-lighter, yard-master;   yard-money n. fees payable by hirers of cabs from cab-owners to stablemen, etc. on returning them to the yard.

(a)
1580   in Archaeologia 64 358   To mak and hang a yard dor at the nether end of the turrit at the bridg.
1795   J. Haighton in Philos. Trans. (Royal Soc.) 85 197,   I kept this animal nineteen months, during the greatest part of which he performed the office of a yard dog.
1823   Scott Quentin Durward I. Introd. p. vii,   Trusty, the yard-dog.
1857   C. Kingsley Two Years Ago iii,   Lofty garden and yard walls of grey stone.
1865   C. Kingsley Hereward xix,   Let me and my serving-man go free out of thy yard gate.
1905   A. C. Benson Thread of Gold ii,   A big black yard-dog.
1908   E. Fowler Between Trent & Ancholme 29   Near the yard doors.
1921   Blackwood's Mag. Feb. 195/1   Dip an old yard~broom in a bucket of water.
1982   J. Scott Local Lads iii. 32   Billy took up an aged, patchily moulted yardbroom.
(b)
1580   T. Tusser Fiue Hundred Pointes Good Husbandrie (new ed.) f. 49v,   Some barnroome haue litle, & yardroome as much.
1744   W. Ellis Mod. Husbandman Jan. xi. 81   He may now carry out his Stable or Yard-Dung.
1764   Museum Rusticum II. i. 3   When I make use of yard dung, I take care it is very rotten.
1778   W. Marshall Minutes Agric. Digest 23   It is better management to prevent, than either to waste or cart-out a superfluity of Yard-liquor.
1827   J. Clare Shepherd's Cal. 20   While ducks and geese..Plunge in the yard-pond brimming o'er.
1869   A. D. Whitney Hitherto xi,   The lowing of cattle at their yard-bars.
(c)
1473   in C. Rogers Rental Bk. Cupar-Angus (1879) I. 189   He sal put bath husband tak and ȝard tak til al possibil polyci.
1505   Rental Bk. Cupar-Angus (1879) I. 260   Biggind of gud ȝerd hous, sufficiand chawmeris and stabulis to resaue and herbry..xij or xvj hors.
1532   Abst. Protocols Town Clerks Glasgow (1897) IV. 57   The rademyng and lowsing of twa riggis of land, lyand at his yard end.
1595   Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 132/2   Up the saidis Alesteris eist yaird-dyk to the mairch of Galdwalmoir.
1691   Jedburgh Counc. Rec. 19 Mar. (MS.) ,   For his wrongous..awaytakeing of certaine stones out of the minister's yeard dyke at his awn hand.
1788   J. Woodforde Diary 7 Jan. (1927) III. 2   To my Yard Boy, Charles Crossley, for 3 Quarters of a Years Wages pd 0. 15. 9.
1809   A. Henry Trav. & Adventures Canada 79   Behind the yard-door of my own house,..there was a low fence.
1822   J. Woods Two Years' Resid. Eng. Prairie 199   Yard-grass comes on land that has been much trodden; it is something like cock's-foot-grass, except the seed.
1831   C. Farquharson Jrnl. 2 Dec. in Relic of Slavery (1957) 47   Employed all hands weeding..along with the yard boys.
1848   R. H. Schomburgk Hist. Barbados 586   Cynodon dactylon. Devil's Grass. Bahama, or Yard Grass.
1907   A. Lang Hist. Scotl. IV. xvi. 392   A minister's yard dyke, or garden wall, was overthrown.
1958   S. Selvon Turn again Tiger viii. 185,   I take the worst job that was going—as a kind of yard-boy by the white people house.
1975   New Rev. May 10/2   In and around Port of Spain cooks, ironers and yardboys in attendance.
1976   Flint (Mich.) Jrnl. 12 July c–5   Yard sale—1508 Webber canning jars, screen tent, patterns, books, [etc.].
1982   M. McMullen Until Death do us Part (1983) vii. 46   There was a yard sale down our street.
(d)
a1647   P. Pett Life in Archaeologia (1796) 12 266   Those businesses, which were put out by the great to divers yard-keepers.
1737   Chamberlayne's Magnæ Britanniæ Notitia (ed. 33) ii. 87   Yard-keeper and Fire-maker.
1804   Naval Chron. 12 504   Six Gun-vessels and Yard-lighters.
1861   in Orders Council Naval Service (1904) II. 29   Pensions..granted to the Riggers employed in Your Majesty's Dock~yards, and the Seamen belonging to the Yard Craft.
1864   Rep. Children's Employment Comm. 139/1 in Parl. Papers XXII. 487/1   Mr Thomas Wheat, yard~master... My duty is to give orders..and manage the work.
1883   P. L. Simmonds Dict. Trade Products Suppl.,   Yard Clerk, one who has the overlooking of the yard of a brewery, builder, etc.
1884   Bath Jrnl. 26 July 7/3   On returning to the yard at night he has to stump up ten shillings more, plus a mysterious fee of two shillings called ‘yard money’.
1889   Boston (Mass.) Jrnl. 9 Apr. 3/4   [A] yardmaster at Brattleboro' had one leg cut off by a switching train.
1891   C. Roberts Adrift in Amer. 93   The brakesman was standing by to couple the cars that the yard engine was backing down on to the rest of the train.
1898   Engin. Mag. 16 67   The ordinary yard-handling of, say, an army corps.

1473—1982(Hide quotations)

 

Draft additions  1993

 

  W. Indies. Also yaad. A dwelling or house (including the land attached); also, a property composed of many rented dwelling units consisting of independent structures with shared toilet facilities (a tenant yard) or forming part of multi-family buildings (typical of a government yard); hence amongst expatriate Jamaicans: Jamaica, ‘home’.

1877   H. G. Murray in F. G. Cassidy & R. B. Le Page Dict. Jamaican Eng. (1967) 485/1   My daughter, Molly tief pass, maam, den go da him yard.
1907   W. Jekyll Jamaican Song & Story lvii. 163   The immediate surroundings of the house are called the yard. They seldom speak of going to a friend's house. They say they are going to his yard.
1950   L. Bennett et al. Anancy Stories & Dial. Verse 71   Me gat tree pickney an dem mumma up a yard.
1956   in F. G. Cassidy & R. B. Le Page Dict. Jamaican Eng. (1967) 485/1   Wi kyan go a mis mieri yaad: We can go to Miss Mary's place.
1974   New York 4 Nov. 73/1   Alton has been on the hit parade down in Yard..ever since his first smash in 1959.
1976   J. Berry Bluefoot Traveller (1977) 27   No mood can touch one Mango season back at Yard.
1988   Washington Post 4 Sept. (Book World section) x14/4   The Pamela Mordecai anthology of Jamaican poetry since independence is titled From Our Yard.., but 11 of the 28 poets live somewhere else.

1877—1988(Hide quotations)