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mosque, n.

Quotations:
Pronunciation:  Brit. /mɒsk/ , U.S. /mɑsk/
Forms:  lME moseach, lME moseak, 15 muskaye, 15 muskey, 15–16 moschea, 15–16 mosquee, 15– mosque, 16 moschee, 16 moschey, 16 moschie, 16 moscho, 16 moschy, 16 mosco, 16 moseque, 16 moskee, 16 mos'keh, 16 moskie, 16 moskque, 16 moskuee, 16 mosky, 16 mosquey, 16 mosquo, 16 mosquy, 16 mozki, 16 muskia, 16 muskie, 16–17 mosch, 16–17 mosche, 17– mosk. (Show Less)
Etymology:  < Middle French meseache, moseache (both end of the 14th cent. in the text translated in quot. ?a1425 at sense a), mousquaie (1423), musquée (1457), Middle French, French mosquée (1550) and its probable etymon Italian moschea (a1470, compare post-classical Latin muschea   (13th cent. in an Italian source)), an alteration of moscheta   (see mesquita n.). Compare Dutch moskee   (1669; 1542 as moskea  , 1601 as musque  ), German Moschee   (1598; 15th cent. as Muschea  , 16th cent. as Moschea  ), Swedish moské   (1771; mid 17th cent. as moschea  , late 17th cent. as mosqué  ), Danish moské  ; in most of the Germanic languages borrowed < Italian and subsequently remodelled after French. Compare masjid n., mesquita n.
 

 a. A Muslim place of worship.Public mosques consist of an area reserved for communal prayers, frequently in a domed building with a minaret, and with a niche (mihrab) or other structure indicating the direction of Mecca. There may also be a platform for preaching (minbar), and an adjacent courtyard in which water is provided for the obligatory ablutions before prayer. Since representations of the human form are forbidden, decoration is geometric or based on Arabic calligraphy.

?a1425   Mandeville's Trav. (Egerton) (1889) 114   Þaire tempill, þe whilk es called Moseak [?a1425 Titus Moseach; Fr. Meseache].
1544   in Lett. & Papers Henry VIII XIX. ii. 452   [The Turk made offers in his] muskaye.
1551   W. Thomas tr. G. Barbaro Trav. Persia (1873) 10   He..was lodged in an auncient Moschea.
1585   T. Washington tr. N. de Nicolay Nauigations Turkie i. Table f. 164v,   S. Sophia and other Mosques of Constantinople.
1603   R. Knolles Gen. Hist. Turkes 341   The Temple of S. Sophia..(now reduced vnto the forme of a Mahometan Moschie..) is most beautifull.
1609   W. Biddulph Trauels Certaine Englishmen 125   There is built in the place thereof [sc. the Temple at Jerusalem] a Muskia or Turkish Church.
1613   S. Purchas Pilgrimage (1617) iii. ix. 325   Mahomet..therefore appointed publike Prayers in all the Mosques of his dominion.
1624   T. Roe Negotiations (1740) 343   The building of so many Mahometan moschyes.
a1645   W. Browne tr. M. Le Roy Hist. Polexander (1647) iv. ii. 191   The daily denying my ransomer in the Mosquo of his adversary.
1673   R. Allestree Ladies Calling i. v. §49   The present Mahometans..permit none to sit in their moschos.
1717   Lady M. W. Montagu Let. 1 Apr. (1965) I. 319   They..go to the Mosque on fridays and the Church on Sundays.
1788   Gibbon Decline & Fall VI. lxviii. 509   The same model was imitated in the jami or royal moschs.
1828   W. S. Landor Imaginary Conversat. III. xix. 524   My commands are,..that praises be offered up in every mosk.
1877   A. B. Edwards Thousand Miles up Nile ii. 30   A Mahommedan mosque is as much a place of refuge and rest as of prayer.
1896   H. C. Trumbull Threshold Covenant i. iv. 37   A Muhammadan is always careful to put his right foot first in crossing over the threshold of a mosk.
1915   W. S. Maugham Of Human Bondage ix. 32   His heart beat with excitement at the pictures of mosques and rich palaces.
1969   C. Himes Blind Man with Pistol xx. 217   We thought you could help us talk to Michael X, the minister of the Harlem Mosque.
2001   Times 2 Jan. 13/3   Hindu extremists who have carried out attacks on mosques and Christian missionaries.

?a1425—2001(Hide quotations)

 

 b. In extended use (by metonymy), as the mosque: those who worship in mosques, Muslims collectively; (also) Islamic authority, culture, etc.

1779   E. Burke Corr. (1844) II. 270,   I could not justify to myself to give to the synagogue, the mosque, or the pagoda, the language which your pulpits so liberally bestow upon a great part of the Christian world.
1856   R. A. Vaughan Hours with Mystics I. vii. i. 326   Those Sufis who proclaimed the difference between the Church and the Mosque of little moment.
1979   Guardian 17 Apr. 1/4   Iran's Foreign Minister..yesterday became the second revolutionary Cabinet Minister to tender his resignation in protest against the way the Mosque is running the country.
1991   Newsweek 11 Nov. 36/1   The Palestinians chose..a text written in English..[which] abandoned the words of the mosque, the rhetoric of the bazaar..and used instead the kind of direct English spoken by the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.

1779—1991(Hide quotations)

 

Compounds

 C1. General attrib.
 

  mosque lamp   n.

1900   Daily News 7 Apr. 5/5   A mosque lamp that is 14th century Arab work.
1977   P. O'Brian Mauritius Command iii. 78   A gilt mosque-lamp swinging from the beam.

1900—1977(Hide quotations)

 
 

  mosque worship n.

1708   Ld. Shaftesbury Let. conc. Enthusiasm 41   There is hardly now in the World so good a Christian..who if he liv'd at Constantinople, or elsewhere under the Protection of the Turks, wou'd think it fitting or decent to give any Disturbance to their Mosque-Worship.
2002   www.oswego.edu 9 Apr. (O.E.D. Archive) ,   Mosque worship was always highly, absorbingly impressive. A thousand men (no women) standing shoulder to shoulder, breast to back, in solid phalanx, the voice of the muezzin rings out.

1708—2002(Hide quotations)

 
 C2.

mosque Gothic n. Obs. rare (perh.) Gothic architecture influenced by Islamic style.

1753   H. Walpole Let. to J. Chute 4 Aug.,   The style has a propensity to the Venetian or mosque Gothic.

1753—1753(Hide quotations)

 
 

  mosque tower   n. a minaret.

1892   E. Reeves Homeward Bound 224   At 9 p.m. a Moor ascends to the top of the mosque tower and calls the hour of prayer.
1993   A. Waldman All is Full of Jove 107,   I chanted the muezzin at dawn from the mosque tower.

1892—1993(Hide quotations)

 

Derivatives

 

  mosqued adj. having many mosques; (also) converted into a mosque.

1902   F. Thompson in Academy 12 Apr. 378/1   The mosquèd Cairene.
1956   R. Macaulay Towers of Trebizond ix. 84   The other ancient Greek churches, so neglected and dilapidated and mosqued.

1902—1956(Hide quotations)

 
 

  ˈmosque-like   adj.

1841   E. Rigby Resid. Shores Baltic I. ii. 35   The mosque-like form of the Greek churches..gave it an air of Orientalism.
1999   Britannica Online (Version 99.1) at Wilmette,   The Baha'i House of Worship (1930), a nine-sided, mosquelike temple that is the centre of the Baha'i faith in North America.

1841—1999(Hide quotations)

 
 

  ˈmosquish adj. resembling or suggestive of a mosque.

1813   J. Forsyth Remarks Excurs. Italy 362   A roof hooded all over with mosquish cupolas.
1831   B. Disraeli Let. 9 Jan. (1982) I. 181   Cypress groves and mosquish cupolas.
1998   Scunthorpe Evening Tel. (Nexis) 15 July 15   San Marcos, Managua's Mosque-ish new cathedral.

1813—1998(Hide quotations)