model, n. and adj.
, 15–16 moddell
, 15–16 modill
, 15–17 modell
, 15–17 modle
, 15– model
, 16 moddle
, 16 modele
, 16 modiall
(perhaps transmission error), 16 modil
, 16 modull
, 16–17 modelle
, pre-17 moddell
, pre-17 modell
, pre-17 17– model
, 18 moddle
. (Show Less)
Frequency (in current use):
Origin: A borrowing from French. Etymon: French modelle.
< Middle French, French †modelle
(1542 in sense , 1563 in sense , 1576 in sense , 1656 in sense , 1676 in sense ; French modèle
) < Italian modello
1537 denoting a figure made of wood or other materials used to make a mould in metal casting, a
1544 in sense ‘perfect example worthy of imitation’) < post-classical Latin modellus
(recorded 1327 in a British source in sense ‘mould, vessel’) < classical Latin modulus
(see ) with alteration of the suffix (compare ). Compare Spanish modelo
(16th cent.), Portuguese modelo
(16th cent.). Compare Dutch model
(first half of the 17th cent.; < French), German Modell
(17th cent.; < Italian), Swedish modell
(mid 17th cent.), and Danish model
(probably both via German). Compare
With branch compare parallel senses at (first attested earlier in sense ); with sense compare earlier ,
A. n. I.
A representation of structure, and related senses.
b. A description of structure. Obs. rare.
1578 T. Digges in L. Digges To Rdr. M
I founde a description or Modill of the world and situation of Spheres Cœlestial and Elementare according to the doctrine of Ptolome.
1578 T. Digges in L. Digges To Rdr. M
But in this our age one rare witte..hath by long studie,..deliuered a new Theoricke, or model of the world, shewing that the earth resteth not in the Center of the whole world, but only in the Center of thys our mortal world.
c. A summary, epitome, abstract; the argument of a literary work. Obs.
a1626 Bacon Let. to T. Matthew in J. Spedding
Of this, when you were here, I shewed you some model.
a1627 T. Middleton Women beware Women v. ii, in
The Actors that this model here discovers, Are onely four.
a1649 J. Winthrop
That treatise about arbitrary government, which he first tendered to the deputies in a model, and finding it approved by some, and silence in others, he drew it up more at large.
1769 H. Brooke IV. xvii. 126
I have now..given you the..unformed rudiments of our Britannic constitution. And here I deliver to you my little model of the finished construction there of.
b. An archetypal image or pattern. rare.
1745 E. Young 67
When shall I..Gaze on Creation's Model in Thy Breast Unveil'd, nor wonder at the Transcript more?
1785 T. Reid 421
Every work of art has its model framed in the imagination.
1849 G. G. Foster in S. M. Blumin
There are three distinct classes of eating-houses, and each has its model or type.
b. Art. An object or figure made in clay, wax, etc., as an aid to the execution of the final form of a sculpture or other work of art; a maquette. Formerly (also): †a sketch or study made for a painting (obs.).In quot. fig.
1613 J. Marston & W. Barksted v. i. sig. I
Imagine that she had a Lord, Iealous, the Aire should rauish her chaste lookes: Doating like the creator in his models.
1686 W. Aglionby
Model, Is any Object that a Painter works by, either after Nature, or otherwise; but most commonly it signifies that which Sculptors, Painters, and Architects make to Govern themselves by in their Design.
1695 Dryden in tr. C. A. Du Fresnoy Pref. p. xliv
To make a Sketch, or a more perfect Model of a Picture, is in the language of Poets, to draw up the Scenary of a Play.
1699 M. Lister
Monsieur Gerardon..made..the Statua Equestris designed for the Place de Vendosme; he told me he had been almost ten years in making the Model with assiduity and daily application.
1801 R. Cecil
An instrument for transferring the form of the model to the marble.
1845 VIII. 456/1
He [sc. the mould maker] then pours the semi-fluid around and over the [clay] model until the upper part has the designed thickness.
1856 II. 929
[article Flaxman] The contents of his studio included nearly all his working models, casts of all his chief works, &c.
1951 H. Read
The sculptor's maquette, or model, was reproduced, generally by other hands, either by being cast in bronze, or by being reproduced to scale by mechanical methods in marble.
1966 H. Moore 220
I could only promise to make notebook drawings from which I would do small clay models.
b. Mathematical Logic. A set of entities that satisfies all the formulae of a given formal or axiomatic system.
1940 W. V. Quine vi. 271
The fact that such classes constitute a model of the traditional real number system was pointed out by Dedekind.
1948 13 16
Models of logical systems.
1952 S. C. Kleene ii. 25
When the objects of the system are known only through the relationships of the system, the system is abstract... Then any further specification of what the objects are gives a representation (or model) of the abstract system, i.e. a system of objects which satisfy the relationships of the abstract system and have some further status as well.
1963 W. V. Quine vi. 135
We have provided a model of arithmetic in set theory when we have provided a way of so reinterpreting arithmetical notations in set-theoretic terms as to carry the truths of arithmetic into truths of set theory.
1974 XI. 639/2
By Gödel's completeness theorem of 1930, if a formal system based on the first-order functional calculus F is consistent, there is a model in which the objects are the natural numbers.
1982 W. S. Hatcher i. 32
By a model for F we mean any interpretation of F in which the proper axioms of F are all true.
An object of imitation.
b. Biol. An animal or plant to which another bears a mimetic resemblance.
1877 VI. 127/1
Probably this beetle shared in the immunity from attack accorded to its model.
1907 31 Oct. 673/2
An insect thus resembled by another is spoken of as its ‘model’, the imitating insect is called a ‘mimic’.
1930 R. A. Fisher 148
The resemblance which is favourable to the mimic will be for the same reason disadvantageous to the model.
1968 R. D. Martin tr. W. Wickler i. 16
Leaf beetles..serve as models for roaches.., which are palatable and resemble their models so closely that they are also avoided by predators.
1968 R. D. Martin tr. W. Wickler iv. 43
This weed [sc. rye-weed]..is less demanding and tougher than its model, the wheat plant.
1994 24 Feb. 684/1
The mimic streak-headed honeyeater is never attacked by its oriole model.
c. Social Psychol. A person who models or exemplifies a desired behaviour. Cf. .
1926 L. L. Bernard xxi. 323
The initiative in conditioning these imitative responses may be taken by either the imitator or the model who is imitated.
1962 10 221
Association of a model with rewards promotes precise imitation of the model's behavior.
1989 P. Randall & C. Gibb 56
The parent ‘models’ the desirable behaviour that they wish the child to learn. The child's initial attempts to imitate this model should be rewarded.
b. A person employed to wear clothes for display, or to appear in displays of other goods.Originally used of women, and still usually understood in this sense unless preceded by a modifying word, as child, male, etc.
1904 May 3
One of the models of the establishment came gracefully towards me.
a1911 D. G. Phillips
II. i. 7
She was dressed in the sleek tight-fitting trying-on robe of the professional model.
1959 26 Oct. 7/7
If the men were only going to become part-time models, they would need to go on doing one or two lessons a fortnight.
1994 Sept. 145/2
Every fashion model worth his pout is wearing a pair of sidies.
1963 3 Nov. 33/1
‘Company director’ and ‘model’ are useful euphemisms for those who appear in dubious court cases.
1968 J. Lock ii. 19
There had been an increase of newsagents' notice-board ads for ‘Models’.
1970 G. Greer 195
Working as hostesses in high-class clubs, as ‘models’ or simply walking the streets.
1972 12 June 33/4
Young male nude model. Experienced, handsome... Completely versatile and cooperative. Your place or mine.
b. In pl. Short for . Now rare.
1887 5 Oct. 4/2
The parish has gone down..and the building of the ‘models’ has not made it better.
1896 25 Aug. 5/6
The ordinary streets and the smaller models, which make up the bulk of the Ghetto, as we find it in Whitechapel [etc.].
1900 25 Oct. 3/4
The overcrowding per acre caused by ‘models’ was just as unhealthy as overcrowding per room.
1899 ‘J. Flynt’ ii. 233
The price..is threepence a night, and this is the common price all over Great Britain, except in the so-called ‘Models’, where a penny more is charged simply for the very deceitful name.
1927 26 Mar. 10/3
The lowest of the derelicts spent the night..in a ‘flophouse’ (which is worse than the lowest ‘model’).
1935 A. MacArthur & H. K. Long xix. 282
‘A model’ in Gallowgate—one of those buildings which are ironically termed ‘Working Men's Hotels’.
1985 M. Munro 46
Model lodging house, a hostel for the single homeless, often shortened to model: ‘Ye can go an stay in the model for aw Ah care’.
A type or design.
Style of structure or form; design, structural type; build, make.
b. Of material structures.
1597 R. Hooker v. xiv. 23
A fault no lesse grieuous,..then if some King should build his mansion house by the modell of Salomons palace.
1660 F. Brooke tr. V. Le Blanc 46
This Town is..built very stately at the Italian model.
1698 J. Fryer 107
These Vessels that are for this Voyage are huge unshapen things, and bear both the Name and Model of their old Junks.
1751 S. Whatley
Putney..has a Ch. after the same model with that of Fulham.
1829 I. Taylor iii. 62
All His works are perfect, both in model and in movement.
1838 E. A. Poe Ligeia in
There was the couch, too—the bridal couch—of an Indian model, and low.
1906 J. G. Horner v. 130
That large and growing group of machines which is built on the model of the common planing machine, with bed, table, housings, and cross rail.
1948 R. Raven-Hart 47
They could go off..to build ‘gunyahs’, shelters after the aboriginal model.
†c. Also Model. The plan for the reorganization of the English parliamentary army, passed by the House of Commons in 1644–5; (also) the parliamentary army, following its reorganization according to this plan. See also Obs.In early use also: any army compared or likened to the reorganized parliamentary army in some way (in quot. used of a Scottish army raised in rebellion against the Commonwealth).
1645 O. Cromwell Let. 4 June in
That you would be pleased to make Captain Rawlins..a Captain of Horse. He has been so before; was nominated to the Model.
1653 Let. of Intelligence July in C. H. Firth
The claus of the commission concernein the Commander in cheife was, they should chuse whome they would Middleton being content with him, therefore 'tis thought that Midleton will be chused cheife of their modell.
a1675 B. Whitelocke
anno 1645 118/2
They [sc. the House of Commons]..debated about the new Model of the Army.
d. An article of clothing of a particular style, which is produced for show by a designer, or fashionable in a particular season, etc.
1859 Jan. 14/2
A quarter of a yard longer at the bottom, and as much shorter at the top, than the Parisian models.
1880 12 June
Messrs Jay import from the first houses in Paris. Models of every style.
1906 Suppl. 3 Oct. 1308/1
Great bargains in ladies' wearing apparel, new and equal to new. Paris models.
1933 N. Coward i. 22
A silly pride made me..parade my attraction for you, like a mannequin. New spring model, with a few extra flounces!
1975 29 July 8/5
The Valentino collection is untypically small... Strikes..have dogged the production of the models.
e. A particular make or design of motor vehicle or (in later use) any manufactured article; an item made to such a design, or produced in a specified year; each of a series of designs for the same type of object (frequently attrib., usually with following numeral or sequential letter). Also in extended use.See also .
1900 22 Dec. 366/1
For sale. Two-passenger Winton, 1900 model, in first-class condition.
1901 21 Sept. 848
Type No. 2. Model ‘C’—12 HP. Double Cylinder Gasoline Engine.
1909 2 Nov. 5/1
The engine of the 20-h.p. model..is of the monobloc order.
1927 7 Dec. 102
Road tests of 1928 models.
1930 H. Crane 29 Dec.
The middle west business man, approved panic model of 1931.
1942 E. Paul ii. 17
Mary drew from somewhere inside her waist a dog-eared American passport of a model no longer in vogue.
1968 23 May 670/1
There are still 405-line-only models, which cannot be converted, on sale.
1987 D. Rowe xi. 384
Accepting yourself means..giving up shopping around for an alternative self, a better model.
Other uses, mainly parallel to senses of
b. Compass, extent of space. Obs. rare.
c1605 in J. Lyly
The thundringe God whose all-embracinge powre Circles ye modell of this spatious rounde.
(chiefly in sense ).
1873 W. Morris in J. W. Mackail
I keep it up, dreading the model day like I used to dread Sunday.
1829 in R. Willis & J. W. Clark
A Model Room for the Jacksonian Professor.
1882 July 239/1
He was soon promoted to the mould loft, model-room, and drawing-room.
1876 Jan. 22 108/1
The model-stand, which generally occupied the centre of the room, had been rolled near the entrance-door, and upon it stood a manikin.
1899 W. C. Morrow 43
They placed the helpless M. Haidor on the model-stand.
1934 A. Woollcott
She had that sweet composure of the spirit which made it an effortless thing for her to sit hour after hour on the model-stand.
1894 Feb. 342/1
She sounded her war-cry at the studio door and went in and made kind inquiries, and sitting cross-legged on the model-throne, ate her bread and cheese.
1898 T. Watts-Dunton viii. ii
A..burly woman,..standing on the model-throne between two lay figures.
Objective (chiefly in sense ).
1957 B. F. Skinner in S. Saporta & J. R. Bastian
Model-building has a special status in the field of verbal behavior.
1989 Sept. 63/3
In addition to puzzles—and for real manual challenge—kids this age enjoy realistic three-dimensional model-building projects.
1591 M. Sutcliffe vii. §v. 185
By studying in corners, manie melancholike modelmakers, and church-coblers may be made.
1598 J. Florio
Disegnante, a map or modle maker.
1855 21 July 359/3
They reflect much credit upon the skill of Mr. S. as a model maker.
1946 28 Dec. 928/2
He obtained a job as a model-maker to a firm of instrument manufacturers.
1989 C. Caufield
The model-maker has the challenging task of trying to translate complex ecological processes that are not yet fully understood into a mathematical formula.
1859 9 July 31/2
One expert in Pattern and Model making also, may hear of an eligible situation by addressing ‘R.D.,’ No. 260 South 17th-street, Philadelphia.
1906 C. Hall i. 15
He merely regards model-making as a pleasant and instructive hobby.
1920 29 Oct. 9
The Prince of Wales..accepted from him a model aeroplane with which he won first prize in the junior section of a model-making competition.
1946 14 Sept. 361/2
The two tanks and propeller-testing tunnel were in operation, and it was possible to see every stage in the process of model-making and testing.
1990 23 Nov. 25/4
It presents a head-down, brain-centred version of human learning and displays a penchant for model-making and hypothesising.
model agency n. chiefly Brit. an agency that supplies models (sense ).
1945 Nov. 166/2
First, you have an interview with one of the leading model agencies, such as Conover or Powers.
1992 Aug. 36/1
I began to work for the model agencies doing paid tests, but as the recession took hold, even these became scarce.
model-drawing n. drawing in perspective from solid figures; the branch or stage of art teaching which deals with this.
1843 J. B. Williams
A manual for teaching model-drawing from solid forms.
1890 C. M. Yonge 254
In my time..there were other kinds of improvement than in model-drawing and all the rest of it.
model girl n. a female fashion model.
1962 4 Jan. 20/1
Witches who are model girls gone macabre.
1974 R. Harris iii. 19
Her figure..must once have been willowy in the model girl fashion.
1991 J. Tanner 108
Unlike some couturiers Madame did not mind if her model girls did not have the same colour hair.
model release n. a legal contract which allows the copyright owner of a photograph, etc., to use it freely without permission from its subject.
Cross Reference Terms... Model Release: See Photographs, Testimonials.
1960 2nd Ser. 18 175
The ‘model release’ involved in the case at bar allows to ‘Avedon, advertisers, customers, successors and assigns’ ‘the unrestricted use of’ the model's ‘name, portrait or picture, for advertising purposes.’
1991 May 45/3
For certain kinds of uses, it's worth getting model releases for both people and building pictures.
model school n. an establishment at which fashion models (sense ) are trained.
1966 A. Prior iv. 40
Robin..said he knew some people in modelling who could help her... He had not been able to afford the so-called Model School.
Model T n. an early type of mass-produced car made by the Ford Motor Company of America; (now also used as) the type of something outmoded or old-fashioned; frequently attrib.
1909 7 Jan. 9/1
Model T of the Ford line is in the same class, in that it is all automobile and no price.
1912 V. W. Pagé xii. 618
The Ford car is one of the most popular of moderate-priced automobiles and over 100,000 of the Model ‘T’ are now on the road.
1912 V. W. Pagé xii. 619
Outlining the distinctive control system of Ford Model ‘T’ automobile.
1930 L. Mumford in Jan. 20/1
One might call this the model T dilemma. Mass-production..suffers..from rigidity.
[1932 A. Huxley ii. 27
Twenty-three years after Our Ford's first T-Model was put on the market.]
1945 20 148/1
Model T, non~com technician.
1947 Jan. 119/1
Such simple demands as wages, hours and working conditions are strictly Model T.
1966 26 Mar. 1251/2
A return to the one-off, custom-built job, is playing right back into Britain's hands and away from the undeveloped nations churning out marine model-Ts.
model year n. N. Amer. a period of a year's duration, at the end of which new models of a vehicle replace those previously on the market.
1939 34 661
We selected a model year as the proper unit [for measuring the elasticity of automobile demand].
1956 15 Oct. 1/3
Arrival of the 1957 model year has failed to dampen prospects for a nearly complete sweepout of 1956 cars by Election Day.
1991 May 12/1
Check the HIN..to verify the boat's model year.
model dwellings n. now hist. (originally in London) large buildings divided into flats and intended to supply better arrangements for sanitation and comfort than were otherwise available, at low rents.
Plans and descriptions of the model dwellings in London, erected by The Society for Improving the Condition of the Labouring Classes.
1891 M. Williams 369
In the case of many cleared areas,..model dwellings have been erected for the accommodation of the persons displaced.
1920 J. Galsworthy ii
Poor little things, livin' in they model dwellin's. Therr's no air for 'em.
1988 93 314
In the spirit of Lord Shaftesbury's philanthropic model dwellings movement..James Lumsden..hired architect James Wylson to design a tenement for working-class residents.
model home n. N. Amer. = .
1921 18 May 5/3
To show model homes at building exposition..next September.
1997 6 Apr. xvi. 6
Visit our 18 walk-thru model homes priced from $109,000 to $139,000.
model lodging house n. now Sc. any of a number of lodging houses established c1840–5 by various philanthropists, and placed under certain regulations intended to secure the comfort and orderly conduct of the residents; later in extended use, applied to other lodging houses regardless of standard.
1847 23 Jan. 61
Model Lodging House in St. Giles's.
1892 2 416
The writer describes a model lodging-house which she established in the docks district. Miss March-Phillips found that ‘better surroundings do in time incline the very roughtest to a better habit of living’.
1973 28 July 1/3
One solution, Mr Macdonald thinks, might be a ‘model’ lodging house as there was in the burgh half-a-century ago.
model prison n. a prison intended to be, or regarded as, a model in organization, conditions, etc.; (formerly) spec. a prison having a regime emphasizing the separate confinement and reformation of inmates (also called separate prison).
1835 1st Rep. Sel. Comm. House of Lords Gaols 71 in (Commons) XI. 1
There should be one or more Central Prisons more immediately under their control. These should be situated either in the Metropolis or its immediate Vicinity, and would serve as Model Prisons for the rest of the Country.
1927 20 66
The Peking model prison well deserves its title, since in addition to being well-lighted and clean and providing excellent food..it employs convicts in a variety of trades.
1996 12 Jan. a11/4
It is not necessary to spend millions on model prisons.
model school n. a school which is intended to be exemplary in organization, teaching methods, etc.
1854 Dickens i. iii. 15
To think of these vagabonds..attracting the young rabble from a model school.
1935 Nov. 342/1
The prime cause of the excavation was the announcement that a new model school was to be built on a field..which..covered part of the site of Camulodunum.
1986 13 June 9/3
Model schools will be opened in villages to tap rural talent.
model village n.
(a) a village providing a high standard of housing, typically built to accommodate the workforce of a large employer (now hist.)
(b) a small-scale model of a village, esp. one built as a visitor attraction.
1906 W. A. Harvey 9
It was in 1895 that Mr. George Cadbury, the senior member of the present firm, commenced the work of building a model village.
The model village, Bourton on the Water.
9 June 81
Elaborate graphics suggested energy-efficient improvements in aerodynamic design and tiny model villages showed Americans of the future making use of a host of renewable energy resources.
1991 J. B. Schor iv. 101
Communitarians and socialist-feminists built model villages in which women shared housework.
It's always seemed curious to me that Bourton-on-the-Water in the Cotswolds has a model village. The real thing seems just like one.
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This entry has been updated (OED Third Edition, September 2002).
In this entry:
In other dictionaries:
- My entries(1)
- modality, n.1545
- modalization, n.1951
- modalize, v.1857
- modalized, adj.1904
- modally, adv.1647
- mod con, n.1934
- modded, adj.1977
- mode, n.c1400
- mode, v.1654
- model, n. and adj.1570
- model, v.1581
- modeless, adj.1583
- modelessness, n.1856
- modelet, n.1605
- modelist, n.1659
- modelize, v.1600
- modelizer, n.1996
- modelizing, n.1600
- modelizing, adj.1716
- modelled | modeled, ...1647
- modeller | modeler, n.1591
- modelletto, n.1937
- modelling | modeling...1650
- modello, n.1937
- modelly, adj.1961
- mode-lock, v.1966
- mode-locked, adj.1965
- mode-locking, n.1965
- model-theoretic, adj.1956
- model-theoretical, adj.1958
- model theory, n.1835
- model-wood, n.1857
- modem, n.1958
- modem, v.1984
- modemed, adj.1984
- Modena, n.1674
- modenature, n.1664
- Modenese, n. and adj.1662
- moder, v.1414
- moderable, adj.1623